Chapter 10: Sexuality
1) “Are the participants old enough to consent?” In other words, has the person reached the statutory “age of consent,” which is the minimum legal age someone must be to have sex.
- The age of consent is the minimum age an individual is considered to be legally competitive to engage in sexual activity.
- In many nations it is the age at which there is no restriction for sexual relationship.
- The laws for determining the age of consent vary significantly across nations.
- Some jurisdiction set their consent age in relation to the gender, position of the sexual act and the action.
- The common jurisdiction that is set in many countries is usually 14-18 years.
- Majority of these minors are engaged in sex through deceit and seduction.
- Most of these violation to the minors impose serious health challenges
- These health challenges include; social, psychological and physical challenges
- Violations of these laws may be considered as statutory rape, child abuse and corruption of a minor thus may result into sentence in the law courts
- Participating in sexual act with minors is not only bound by jurisdiction but also social and cultural norms of many nations.
2) “Do both people have the capacity to consent?” This refers to the mental and legal capacity of the person. Foreseeable, this would exclude some people with disabilities, some elderly, and those drugged or unconscious.
- Research studies have indicated a proliferating rate of global sexual abuse on individuals who are physically challenged and may not have the consent.
- Female individual faces double risks of un-consented sex due to gender disparity.
- Most of these abuses are encouraged by negative societal norms of stigmatization thus rendering them as vulnerable victims.
- People with disabilities such as mental health also have a right of normalization thus need to be consulted before any sexual engagement.
- In legal terms, it is important to have a voluntary acceptance of the partner before participating in any sexual action.
- Involuntary sexual acts without partner’s consent in which a person is coerced or threatened is considered as a crime.
- In many nations the capacity of challenged individual to participate and enjoy sex is regulated.
- The Human Rights need to advocate for adoption of equality for sexual engagement and marriage for individuals with disorders.
- The activist requires valuing the ability of the vulnerable group rather than their inabilities.
- This will perpetuate the right of equality despite disability in the society.
3) “Did both participants agree to take part without the use of physical force, coercion, or threats?” If the answer to either of these questions is “No” and a sexual act takes place, then it is a crime - rape!
- These sexual assaults vary significantly and may include; elderly sexual assault (victimization), domestic violence, and groping.
- These traumatic events usually have several side effects on physical, social and psychological domains of an individual.
- In most circumstances, involuntary rapes have always resulted in a victim blaming.
- Consequently most of the victims become defensive and angry about their role in the rape case.
- They feel that they failed to use their common sense to prevent the occurrence of the action.
- The aftermath period always portrays it as a downright false.
- Making a conscious decision to rape an innocent victim only because of his/her vulnerable condition qualifies one’s action as perpetrator responsibility.
- Consequently, presenting in the undesirable manner such as flaunting one’s sexuality using miniskirts, dancing naked and carrying out prick teasing present the fault onto the victim.
- Many of the victims have fallen prey to victimization by such forms of negative acts
- Such forms of presentations are restricted in many nation and regarded as illegal
Kinsey’s reports, Hunt’s Playboy survey, and the National Health and Social Life Survey
- What similar findings came from the Kinsey’s reports, Hunt’s Playboy survey, and the National Health and Social Life Survey? What differences appeared in these three surveys?
Documentary records indicate that no modern times research have shaped social attitudes and perceptions on sexuality than Kinsey’s reports, Hunt’s Playboy study and the National Health and Social Life Survey reports. Though varied in their findings they are regarded as the basis of understanding human sexuality and sexual education, Kinsey’s mixed in his perspective on sexual partnership and monogamy as he depicts them as strict acts within a given age group while NHSLS portrays them as an average and liberal arts. The NHSLS is considered as more reliable report than Kinsey’s report due to the improved technique used in the research (Brannon, 2004).
- What did Masters and Johnson’s research reveal that the sex surveys did not? How has their research changed views of sexuality?
The Masters and Johnson initiated the research on human sexual response, diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunctions. These individuals unfortunately included the virtues of cultural attitudes in their research study. They relayed ambiguous information that women may attain orgasm by just masturbating. This form of ambiguity has changed the notion of many researchers to include only facts on human sexuality researchers (Brannon, 2004).
- Do gender differences exist in the patterns of sexual victimization during childhood? Do similarities also exist? Describe these patterns.
Research studies on sexual victimization on children have been observed to vary significantly across the genders. The number of female perpetrators reported has been considered to be high for a rate of 68% than their male counterparts at 37% globally. Although the main cause of this form of victimization has not been identified, most circumstances the victims are exposed to similar sexual act such as oral or anal sex (Brannon, 2004).
- What styles of sexuality do heterosexual adults accept?
Sexual preference varies significantly among heterosexuals with majority preferring bisexual, homosexual and asexual. These preferences are usually inclined to the biological and psychological characteristics of an individual (Brannon, 2004).
- What problems in sexuality do gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents face that heterosexual adolescents do not? Are any of their problems similar?
According to one of the recent surveys conducted gay, lesbians, transgender and bisexual adolescent suffered a high level of verbal harassment and victimization as compared to the heterosexuals. Both the heterosexuals and the gay, lesbians faced similar problem of recognition and identity in the society and among celebrities (Brannon, 2004).
- What is the impact of culture on sexuality?
Studies indicate that there is a significant similarity between nature of Sexuality and culture. These issues include, sexual responsibility, freedom of speech and association and sexual relationship that individuals are subjected. These cultural norms are practiced in almost all parts of the globe (Brannon, 2004).
Brannon, L. (2004). Gender: Psychological perspectives. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. Pp.1-230 Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/gender-psychological-perspectives/oclc/473655884