Political parties are one of the critical components in a society. It is worth noting that in a democratic government system political parties play a critical role. In the United States, two-party system has dominated for many years. Two-party system refers to a system whereby two main political parties dominate the politics of the country. One of the two is the majority part, while the other is a minority party. Critically, the constitution of the United States is silent on issues related to political parties. The political ground in the U.S is very dynamic, and Americas are innovative in devising campaign strategies, which are mostly linked to public policy and public opinions (Reichley 34). The history of two-party system in the United States has undergone tremendous changes over years. Historians and political scientists focus the development of two-party system in five dimensions. These are clear indications that two-party system in the United States has gone through several transformational stages. Evaluation of two-party system in the United States calls for critical analysis that dates back 1790s. American tow-party system plays critical roles that influence the political atmosphere of the country. These changes changed in the 20th century and continue to undergo various reforms. In the general perspective, two-party system in the United States remains very relevant in the political environment.
The two-party system in American political history plays tremendous roles. One of the roles played by tow-party system in America is to select candidates to running for political office. It is worth noting that the parties select various candidates to contest for several electoral positions in the politics of America. Based on the fact that there are too many political leaders to choose, voters would find it difficult to choose their preferred candidates if the parties did not exist (Bibby & Louis 45). The two-party system present with voter's alternatives to choose. The alternatives are based on policies.
Two-party system in America presents a platform for checking party performance. It the two-party system, one of the parties takes power and run the government while the other party checks on the performance of the ruling party. The part that hold the minority in congress keeps watch on the party in power. The opposing party can criticize the performance of the president. Without the opposition party, the ruling party might take absolute powers in running the government. Through the two-party system, it is possible for the ruling party to be criticized and kept within the public interest (Mack 67). On the same note, two-party system plays a critical role in certifying that the public is informed on various issues. Party’s criticize and take stand measures on the views of the other party. The publicized criticism and information is essential is ensuring that the public is aware of how the government operates. It is through information that the public receive that make them push the government to solve societal problems.
Monitoring the opposing party is also a critical role played by two-party system in the United States. The opposition party in two-party system act as a watchdog for the public. The party out of power tends to keep a close watch to the president and the ruling party. The ruling party must deliver its promises to the public. The public have the privilege of being informed any policy misstep that the ruling party may undertake. In addition, another role played by two-party system is organizing the government (Schmidt et al. 250). The state legislatures and congress are mostly organized according to the affiliation of the parties. The legislative representatives of the two-party systems support the position of their parties in relation to policies and laws. The votes on potential policies and laws are voted along the party affiliations.
Two-party systems in America play a crucial role on policy making and consensus of values. It is easy for the Republicans and Democrats to argue on a specific issues. The two-party system in the United States believes in individualism, equality, and liberty. In fact, the consensus of values between the two parties is streamlined according to the constitution. In nations where multi-party system dominates, disagreements are deeper, and consensus of values are rarely achieved (Reichley 45). These means that the two-party system in America ensure that consensus of values is easily achieved. Facilitation of governance in two-party system is much easy since there is order in policymaking.
In the 20th century, American politics has undergone various reform process. These are based on the fact that political parties enjoyed increased. The role of two-party system in America changed in the 20th century because of the rise of political parties. The changes in ideologies of party politics in the United States also changed the roles of two-party system. In the 1929-1941, the new Deal and The Depression brought several changes. The Americans focused on reviving its economy. In the 20th century, the economic platform changed and the demands of the public also changed (Disch 13). Hence, the roles of two-party system change to fit the demands of the public. The new Coalitions that took place in the 20th century changed the role of two-party system in America. Many stakeholders became involved in the support of the New Deal. For example, the New Deal received supports such as Jews, racial minorities, Catholics, labor union, as well as workers. For some time, the Democratic Party dominates the politics of America.
The introduction of other parties tends to bring changes in the roles of two-party system. These are based on the fact that the role to oversee the ruling party became diverse. Each of the parties participated in criticizing the ruling party and informing the public. The parties focus on economic systems, and to some extend the two-party system had divided people along economic lines.
The roles also changed because of the dynamics of political life in Europe. The existence of socialists in the 20th century caused changes in the political ideologies. The socialists vies began to dominate the politics of America (Schiller et al. 836). People in the 20thh century were fed up with a system, which promoted corruption and vote-buying. The 20th century various progressive reforms took place, which changed the rules of two-party system in the United States. The secret ballot and the Civil Service Selection System created a strict form of voting that could not directly influence the voter.
The advancement in technology in the 20th century also brought various changes in party politics. The roles of two-party system changed since most of the activities could be monitored using the technological tools (Mack 17). Technology created a platform where various stakeholders could check and monitor the ruling party. The increase of civil rights groups continued to put much pressure on issues of politics.
Based on the dynamic nature of politics in the United States, the trends have changed tremendously. The modern United States political party system has three major players, which include Democratic Party, Republican Party, as well as Independents. The modern politics of the United States the two-parts that have dominated are the Republican Party and Democratic Party. Despite the dominance of the Republican Party and Democratic Party, the United States is a multi-party system (Schmidt et al. 303). Other parties that can promote presidential candidates for elections include Natural Law, Green, Reform, Socialist, as well as Libertarian Parties. In the New Millennium, it is evident that political parties continue to play major roles in presidential elections.
In the year 2010, Gallup polling showed the 29% of Americans identified as Republicans, 31% are Democrats and 38% as Independent. Studies show that currently the number of Americans identifying as part of independent has tremendously risen. The strength of political parties system in the United States is based on voter registration. During the registration, voters can indicate their party preference.
In critical analysis, it is evident that the current party system in the U.S is engrained. The voters in the United States streamline their issues towards political ideologies. Each of the political parties in the United States is associated with a specific issues. Some of the issues include drug liberalization, abortion restrictions, same-sex marriage, capital punishment, gun control, health care, taxation, foreign policy, as well as immigration. These issues tend to determine the features and political ideologies of the parties (Bibby & Louis 56). The political ideologies drive voters. Today, the political system in the United States are greatly improved. These are because it is based on the issues. In the past, corruption was rooted in political party system, which influence the voting process.
The relevance of the two major political parties is diminishing in the modern political environment. The advancement of technology and media tend to change the political views of the United States politics (West & Zev 22). The independents have also increased and continue to receive support. The role of political parties has also decreased, especially in the electoral process.
Political parties must be reformed in the United States. Analytically, political party system is very crucial in enhancing democracy. Voters in the United States are engaged on issues, but the adversarial parliamentary style and tribal politics tend to derail political party system. One of the crucial factors is to ensure that political parties focus on issues, and the voters should vote based on issues (Disch 23). The political parties that operate in the closed circles should open up. Political parties should also rebuild their membership. The political parties should develop a strong relationship with various organization that focus on public concerns. Some of these organizations include trade unions, women movements, and activist organization. The main focus of political parties should be on public demands and needs.
Politicians who are part of the political systems need to focus on core issues of politics and money. Politicians ask for support and money during campaigns. Politicians should promote comprehensive reforms that improve political parties (Schiller et al. 840). In addition, political party systems should boost transparency. The aspect of transparency should be focused on funding sources. On the same note, political parties should increase in order to facilitate transparency and service delivery (Dulio & James 1).
In the general perspective, political parties play crucial roles in the politics today. Two-party system has dominated in the United States, but current trends show that Independence. Some of the roles of two-party system include select candidates to running for political office, checking party performance, monitoring the opposing party, as well as policy making. There are changes in the political party systems, and the trend is believed to continue. The reforms that are undertaken by parties ensure that political parties perform its roles effectively.
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Disch, Lisa J. The Tyranny of the Two-Party System. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Internet resources .
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Mack, Charles S. When Political Parties Die: A Cross-National Analysis of Disalignment and Realignment. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2010. Print.
Reichley, Anthony J. The Life of the Parties: A History of American Political Parties. Lanham, Md [u.a.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000. Print.
Schiller, Wendy J., Charles Stewart, and Benjamin Xiong. "U.S. Senate Elections Before The 17Th Amendment: Political Party Cohesion And Conflict 1871–1913." Journal Of Politics 75.3 (2013): 835-847. Business Source Premier. Web. 15 Nov. 2014.
Schmidt, Steffen W, Mack C. Shelley, and Barbara A. Bardes. American Government and Politics Today, 2009-2010 Edition. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
West, Darrell, and Zev, Chafets. "Is America's Two-Party System Broken?." New York Times Upfront 144.12 (2012): 22. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 15 Nov. 2014.