The peninsula division of Korea after the Second World War and consequent war against Communist North, such as fraternal war in 1953, twisted the trend of the Korean Politics. The republic of Korea was proclaimed in 1948. During the late 1950’s the south of Korea was sustained by fundamental military of United States, political and economical support. This enabled the country to overcome attempt to destabilize the regime. The attempts were coordinated by the dictatorial Communist Leader from North Korea, Kim II Sung.
Until April 1960, Syngman Ree was in a position of the president in the Republic of Korea. He was applying the cover of anti-communism in the autocratically rule which undermined the political freedom (Nicolas, 2007). However, the president was forced to resign following the student unrest due to fraud that was experienced in the presidential election. As a result, the new constitution was enacted during that period that led to rise of the Second Republic. However, the political freedom was still limited and applied the trend of anti-communism.
Significantly, the military leader, General Park, was able to restore the political freedom and in December 1963, he went ahead to proclaim the third republic. General Park raised his authority power by amendment of the constitution in 1972. He remained in the authority until 1979 when he was assassinated.
During the 1980s the economic development of the country exerted pressure on the political liberalization and the pressure become more aggressive in 1987(Nicolas, 2007). The president during that period, Chung was forced by the international community and the student unrest to get out of authority. His successor, Roh Tae-Woo influenced the passage of the sixth constitution in 1987. He was famously known for more aggressive political liberation and anti-corruption.
Roh was succeded by Kim Young Sam in 1993 being the initial civilian president. After the promising changes in effective transparency and accountability, thing started changing as Kim is now being accused of practicing corruption contrary to his move to eliminate corruption in the Korea.
Françoise Nicolas, (2007). Korea in the New Asia: East Asian Integration and the China Factor. London: Routledge