1. The term Share cropping refers to an agricultural system of sharing the land between landlord and tenant wherein landlord permits tenant or a farmer to use his land in lieu of a certain percentage of the crop production on the shared land. This system was widely practiced during the era of civil war in America and the main reason of this system was abolition of slavery in southern parts of America. Once slavery was eliminated, it became difficult for landlords to continue the cotton plantation. They had huge amount of land but the laborers were not available to work in the fields. On the other hand, thousands of freed slaves were facing new challenges in the changed scenario and a large number of them chose to work as share croppers.
In sharecropping system the landlord used to provide seeds, irrigation and farming tools along with other materials used for the agricultural purpose to the farmer. The pattern of share cropping was like it was during slavery. Once the crop was prepared it was taken to the market by landlord for sale and Landlord used to deduct the cost of seeds along with other materials that he had invested at the beginning. After this the crop was divided between the landlord and the farmer in equal ratio though sometimes it was less than half for the farmer. The situation was deteriorated in case of any kind of damages to crop and farmers were plunged into deep debts. Usually farmers were unable to pay debts and such situations lead the famers in situations similar to slavery and finally there was not the actual freedom for the slaves even after the emancipation.
2. The cold war made some noticeable impacts on the America and affected every aspect of American society like higher education, economy, immigration policy, foreign policy, civil rights, and civil liberty. Americans adopted the capitalism for their country which turned out to be a good decision for the nation. America emerged as an economic power and further grew its dominance in the world. The communism became a target for the America and was fought within and outside the country. The foreign policy of the country was made with the intention to stop communist countries.
Though slavery was eliminated from American society, the inequality against the black people was still going on and they were subjected to a number of discriminations by their white society fellows. The period of cold war and afterwards was a period of change and it proved to be very positive for the American society. A number of steps were required to improve the situation and they were taken after the cold war only when people and leaders of America felt the situation should be improved. President Truman opined that it is good to make a society that does not support any kind of discrimination. According to him it is in the interest of a democratic society.
Higher education was one area where we observe an array of improvements and changes. The quality of higher education was improved and technical education was much focused. Both the superpowers were in the race of technical supremacy and American youths were participating in this race by innovation through education. Immigration policy was also widely discussed and certain improvements were made according to the changed scenario of the country.
Conrad, C. (2005). African Americans in the U.S. economy. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Foner, E. (2009). Give Me Liberty!: an American History. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.