The Chicago School of Professional Psychology
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and substance abuse. Data was collected using a drug use questionnaire and a religiosity scale. It was hypothesized that individuals with high levels of religiosity would report lower levels of substance abuse compared to individuals with low levels of religiosity. A one way between subject analysis of variance was conducted and yielded .
Effects of Religiosity on Substance Abuse
The misuse of drug in the United States has exposed the population of all religions and communities to many risk factors. Some of the risk factors are very dangerous to their lives and health. One of the most common risk factor has been drug dealing through the sell and the trafficking of drugs within and outside of America (Rodney et al, 1996, p.435).
Sentiments and moral support has been connected with risk factors that have been experienced due to the use of the drugs has been cases of racism, discrimination, and language barrier among the Americans. Most of the people who have fully sunk into the abuse of the drugs hardly get any substantial education hence have problems with effective communication. In addition, this people also experience high levels of discrimination from those who do not use the drugs because of their bad behaviour that comes with the use of these drugs.
Furthermore, the people who are seriously affected with the abuse of the drugs are also experiencing low self-esteem in the society. Most people who are addicted to the use of the drugs normally feel that they have a problem. They normally feel low in the society hence greatly reduced their esteem and are also observed to become less spiritual or theist (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002, p.25).
Alcohol is the drug that most of the drug addicts depend on, and, most of them can hardly survive without the use of alcohol. This has led to the drinking of illicit brew, and, people go to risky extends to get money to acquire the drug. There have also been low levels of family pride especially in families where the drug addicts originate. The families normally feel disadvantaged and lowly respected in the society and may not hold a very high religious connect in the first place (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002, p.41).
Abnormal peer association has also been another major risk factor in the society. Due to the use of the drugs, most of the peer members normally associate in a very violent way that easily leads to lose of lives due to small differences that arise among them. This has been another major cause of the deaths of the addicts as most of them end up killing each other due to differences that arise from the use of drugs. Lastly, most of these addicts experience high levels of stress due to their situation.
With the above discussion it is clear that Ssubstance abuse is a common problem in society and many individuals struggle with drug addiction. It is becoming one of the nation’s biggest pressing issues. Substance abuse negatively impacts one’s health physically and emotionally, and could possibly lead to death. The abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs account for more than half a million deaths and cost more than 400 billion dollars in healthcare, criminal justice expenses, social welfare, etc (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2001). Religion plays a significant role in many people’s lives and for some, religion may be vital in overall well-being. It plays a role in the way we think and subsequently the way we act. Many religions such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are against substance abuse. Beliefs, affiliation, and attendance are three different aspects of religious involvement that may have an influence on drug use. However, an individual may attend a religious organization but not share their beliefs or an individual may not attend a religious organization and still share their core religious principles. According to studies presented, regardless of what religion a person is affiliated with, individuals who attend church continually have lower rates of drug use than those who do not attend regularly.
There have been studies that evaluated the effects of religiosity on substance abuse. Gorsuch (1995) suggested that individuals involved positively in their religion were less likely to abuse drugs then those individuals who were involved in a restrictive/negative religion or no religion at all. This research specifically focused on the relatedness of religiosity to substance abuse and whether such a correlation could be helpful to society in reducing substance abuse (Gorsuch, 1995). These findings were supported by Clayton (1992) who did a study on protective factors against drug abuse reported that a majority of models of risk factors for drug abuse include being nonreligious as a risk factor.
There have been studies on peers influence on adolescent drug use. In a three year longitudinal study, Kaplan, Martin, and Robbins (1984) found that adolescent peers who used drugs would continue to use drugs at a later time. Kandel (1980) who reviewed much research on adolescent drinking and substance abuse reported that adolescents who were involved with a religion had a negative association with alcohol and marijuana use. This suggests that being involved with a religion tends to inhibit drinking and drug abuse among adolescents.
A study by Brizer (1993), analyzed the role of religiosity on alcohol and drug abuse using an inpatient psychiatric population. They were given a three page questionnaire on religious involvement along with a religious interest questionnaire. The subjects were also asked to complete a four-item drug use scale that calculated drug and alcohol consumption during the previous month. The study determined that alcohol and drug use was negatively correlated with religiosity (Brizer, 1993).
The reviews of literature conclude that there is an evident and consistent association between religion and substance abuse behavior. Specifically those who endorse religious beliefs tend to report lower incidences of substance abuse. Although, researchers may define abuse in different ways and examine various substances, no differences have been found between the affiliations of religion to substances
Batson, Schoenrade, and Ventis (1993) did a study on religious experience and an individual’s social and psychological perspective on their religion. This study suggested that religious individuals may respond to questionnaires to make their religion look more favorable so therefore, they give more desirable responses. Wallace et al. (2007) did a study on how religious African American and Latino/a American young adults are and whether religiosity “protects” them from drug use. The study consisted of African American, Latino/a American and White American 10th graders nationwide. Results showed that most of 10th graders, regardless of their race, were somewhat religious and a third or more were significantly religious. The data also indicated that being religious did in fact “protect” African American and Latino/a American 10th graders from substance abuse. However, the relationship was greater for White Americans than non-White Americans. Other research also indicates that spirituality and religion are correlated with better treatment outcomes and improved possibility for long term sobriety (Gorsuch, 1995).
More than 90% of the United States is said to believe in God, a “higher power”, or some worldwide spirit, and most Americans associate themselves with some sort of religious denomination. Nine out of ten individuals claim to pray daily or at least regularly, and over 40% of individuals admitted to attending a religious service weekly (Greeley, 1989; Wallace et al., 2003).
Studies have tentatively shown that the negative correlations between religiosity and crime are associated with problems that arise from abusing substances. Religion is said to be a “social control agent” that protects and defends from deviant behavior (Chitwood, Weiss, & Leukefeld, 2008; Underwood & Teresi, 2002). Religiosity and spiritually are similar and have been found to sometimes reduce substance abuse (Chitwood, Weiss, & Leukefeld, 2008).
The recovery rate of the patients going through the therapies is worth noting. This is because a good number of the drug addicts who have enrolled in the drug rehabilitation therapies have completed successfully and resumed their normal ways of life. It is estimated from research that out of a hundred people who enrol for the drug rehabilitation treatments, sixty of them go through the program completely, usually recover, and go into their normal ways of life who have failed to go through the treatments have mainly quit due to the influence from other friends who are still dealing with the drugs. The sixty percent is however commendable and is a clear indicator that the problem is being fought to a good extend by all the responsible groups in the country, however the remaining forty are alo impacted by certain factors. There are many protective factors against drug use and religiosity is suggested to be one of the significant protectors. Information regarding what could protect an individual from substance abuse and risk factors are essential tools for prevention programs. Attention needs to be given to what could protect an individual from succumbing to drugs (Sanchez, Garcia De Oliveira,& Nappo, 2008). Religiosity is said to be important in the recovery and treatment of the dependency of drugs especially psychoactive substances.
In the study done by Sanchez, Garcia De Oliveira, and Nappo (2008), participants were given a questionnaire and asked what were their possible protective factors that a person, not necessarily the participant should use in order to avoid substance abuse. Results indicated that family and religiosity were the top rated protective factors. However, the study also suggested that religion is not the approach used in the literature regarding this issue. Religiosity was used in the same category as spirituality.
According to Sullivan (1993) spirituality is a unique belief that may or may not include believing in “God.” It is more about seeking growth and wellness within the individual. According to Miller (1998) religion is practicing and believing in the core aspects proposed in the religion one identifies with. Religiosity is also associated with believing in a “Supreme Being” whose laws are made for well-being.
Allen and Lo (2010) explored the effects of religiosity and substance abuse. According to them religiosity was negatively associated with substance abuse and religiosity controlled the likelihood of an individual abusing substances. They found that religion also helped those recover from substance abuse and was also used in the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse.
Religiosity has many dimensions and is complex. Recent findings from the National Institute on Drug Abuse showed that drugs, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among African Americans has increased since the 1990s and even more in the 2000s. By the time an African American teenager reaches his/her senior year of high school, seven out of ten of those teenagers would have already used alcohol, smoked cigarettes, and 25% of those individuals have used marijuana (National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2002). A recent analysis in resilience research in regards to religiosity among African Americans found that religion was a protective factor and was connected with beneficial health and social outcomes and that also indicated that Religiosity has many dimensions and is complex.. (Wallace, Brown, Backman, & LaVeist, 2003). Religion is said to provide African Americans with psychological as well as social support and is said to boost the positive outcome of teenage resiliency and the power to resist the allurement towards substance abuse (Taylor, 1988).
Nonnemaker, McNelly, and Blum (2003) agree that it is comprehensively known that private and public religiosity does protect against drug abuse especially among adolescents. However, little is known about how this process occurs. Wills, Biggons, Gerrard, Murry, and Brody (2003) have proposed that there are many pathways, for example, psychosocial domains, and through this religiosity is said to affect these risk behaviors especially those among African American teenagers, this includes the effect on “drug refusal efficacy.”
The definition of “Refusal Efficacy” is an individual’s ability to refuse drugs when that individual is confronted with a drug offer (Wills, Biggons, Gerrard, Murry, and Brody, 2003); this includes situations of peer pressure or colleagues who are drug users, and using drugs as a method of coping (Ellickson & Hays, 1991).This study indicated that “refusal efficacy” plays an essential role in substance abuse among adolescents.
There have been globally escalating rates of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. These escalating rates have called for intervention programs which use religiosity has a protective factor. Now new research is forming to show that religiosity and spirituality is important and therapeutic in preventing HIV (Albaugh, 2003; Al-Kandari, 2003; Jones, 1995; Seeman et al., 2003; Tanyi & Werner, 2003; Walton, 1999).
Religiosity has been well known for its effects on some but not all sexual and substance abuse related behaviors. Teenagers who claim to be more religious tend to avoid risky behaviors including drug related behaviors and they view casual sex negatively (Levinson et al., 1995). These findings suggest that religiosity helps reduce “at risk” behaviors which include alcohol and drug use.
Alcohol, Tobacco, and other drugs are known to be abused by adolescents especially among seniors in high school. According to The Monitoring Future Study (Johnston, O’Malley, & Bachman, 1996), 80% of high school seniors had used alcohol and 50% of those seniors had used in the past thirty days (The Monitoring Future Study, Johnston, O’Malley, & Bachman, 1996). Many high school seniors also admitted to binge drinking in the past two weeks and about 8% admitted to cocaine use. Religion has become an important and crucial aspect when it comes to substance abuse. The more an individual is religious, the less likely they are to abuse alcohol, marijuana, cigarettes, and other illegal substances. (Amey, Albrecht, Miller, 1996; Wallace & Forman, 1998; Miller, Davies, Greenwald, 2000; Bachman, Brown, Johnston, O’Malley, Schulenberg, 2001).
Paulson, Eppler, Satterwhite, Wuensch, and Bass, (1998) did a study about substance abuse and religiosity. They found that college women who were affiliated with a religion and had strong beliefs towards that religion reported to consume less alcohol than the females who had weaker religious beliefs. They also studied middle school and high school adolescents, typically those who were in 7th and 10th grade. The researchers found that the stronger the individuals religious beliefs were, the less likely those persons were to engage in alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. (Wills, Yaegar, and Sandy, 2003).
Dunn (2005) conducted a study about the relationship between religiosity, employment, and political beliefs on substance use among high school seniors. He found that religiosity and employment were significantly correlated with alcohol use variables. Whether male or female, those who believed religion was an important aspect in their life were less likely to involve themselves with alcohol use or binge drinking. These findings also demonstrate that religiosity is a protective factor for adolescents and helps prevent them from being involved in hazardous environments. This also demonstrates that being affiliated with a religion can act as a social control mechanism, which allows for adolescents to avoid risky behaviors as previously stated.
Pullen, Modrcin, Talbott, West, and Muenchen (1991) examined the correlation between alcohol and drug abuse done by adolescents and how frequent an individual attends religious services in the south-east United States. They handed out surveys to 217 participants between the ages of 12-19. Results indicate that the more an individual attended a religious service, the less likely they were to abuse alcohol and drugs. Pullen, et al. (1991) stated that healthcare should have more of a holistic approach. We are at a time where healthcare is becoming more and more expensive and not much progess is being made in regards to certain diseases. Pullen et al.(1991) note that patients are human beings and we are similar and have religious and spiritual needs within us. However, nurses and medical doctors fear bringing religion or religious beliefs into healthcare. The researchers believe that since religiosity and decreased alcohol and drug use is correlated then it would make more sense to use religiosity as a tool for maintaining excellent health.
Denscombe (1995) did a study in Leicestershire, England and examined a group of 15-16 year old adolescents regarding religiosity/spirituality and alcohol abuse trends among adolescents. The study uncovered that adolescent views towards alcohol use was correlated to their religious beliefs. Muslims were stricter in their religious beliefs regarding alcohol use than Hindus and Sikhs. The Church of England members were also less likely to abuse substances because it went against their religion.
A study conducted by Diniaco (1996) found that participants who were more involved with their religious events were not alcohol or drug abusers. Similar to Diniaco (1996), Singh and Mustapha (1994) examined 1604 adolescents in Trinidad using the survey method. They found that adolescents who were more affiliated with their religion and attended their religious youth programs were less involved in drug abuse. These adolescents perceived their religion as very important and lived their lives in accordance to their religion.
Francis and Mullen (1993) examined 4753 adolescent male and females in England meanwhile Mullen and Francis (1995) examined 1534 adolescent male and females in the Netherlands. These researchers studied religiosity and attitudes towards substance abuse. In both studies, adolescents who claimed to attend religious services regularly reported believing that drug use was wrong.
Being affiliated with a religion and having religious beliefs have been known to have a beneficial effect on the satisfaction of life, well-being, and lifestyle. Given all these positive outcomes, religiosity has been said to influence health and recovery (Dossey, 2000; Ellison, 1991). This role of religion can also be a factor in preventing disease. Substance use is said to have the ability to shorten one’s life and have an impact on mortality as well. Studies continue to reveal a beneficial effect between religiosity and substance abuse in adolescents (Brown, Parks, Zimmerman, & Phillips, 2001; Miller, Davies, & Greenwald, 2000; Wallace & Forman, 1998.) Religious denomination, attendance of religious services, and personal devotion are negatively correlated with alcohol consumption or drug abuse. The more affiliated an individual is with their religion; the less likely they are to abuse drugs.
Adolescents usually turn to drug or alcohol use when under stressful situations, praying as a way of coping is beneficial to decreased levels of substance abuse (Piko, 2001). The church itself is a positive social institution for general risk education such as drug, alcohol, sex, and AIDs prevention and is especially crucial for adolescents (Kutter & McDermott, 1997). Moreover, not being affiliated with a religion or having lower levels of religion is associated with the beginning and ongoing use of substances (Chatters, Taylor & Lincoln,1999).
Wallace and Williams (1997) made it clear that there are a considerable amount of factors that mediate between religion and more favorable health relationship. This includes health-related behaviors, group identity, methods of coping, and social support. They also suggest that family and religiosity play a critical role in the whole process.
Many college students are known to drink especially those under the legal drinking age of 21 (Vicary & Karshin, 2002). College students usually binge drink and involve themselves in high-risk behavior that include drinking as well as driving (Wechsler, Lee, Nelson, & Kuo, 2000). These risky behaviors usually result in substance abuse, addiction, accidents, and even death. Religiosity has been known to be negatively correlated with alcohol use. (Borynski, 2003: Schall, Kemeny, & Maltzman, 1992; Wallace & Williams, 1997). College students who were known to drink lightly or less frequently referenced to being affiliated with a religion (Slicker, 1997). Religiosity is also known to be inversely related to having substance abuse problems. In a study examining the reasons college students refrain from drinking, Strawser, Storch, Geffken, Killiany, and Baumeister (2004) found that having faith in a religion was associated with less likelihood of alcohol problems and substance abuse. All in all, being religious may be a key factor in preventing underage drinking especially among college students.
A study conducted by Benda and Toombs (2002) examined individuals entering boot camp. There was a sample of 326 males 15-24 years of age in the only boot camp existing in Arkansas. Benda and Toombs (2002) were examining the effects of religiosity and drug use among the boot camp participants. A hypothesized theoretical model was used and a two-stage least squares regression was tested. The hypothesized theoretical model was assembled based on the understanding of literature on youthful offenders and on the knowledge of boot camps. The results indicated that attachment to caregivers was negatively related to associations with peers who take part in risky behavior. It has been exhibited that individuals especially peers who engage in criminal and unlawful acts support the beliefs that reduce commitment to religion (Benda, 1997; Burkett, 1993; Matsueda, 1989).
Because substance abuse is so common among individuals, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of some of the treatment outcomes. Religiosity is said to have positive effects in the treatment of substance abuse. Studies which focus on religiosity see it as a protector factor against drug abuse and is an important factor in the treatment and recovery of individuals. (Brenda & Corwyn 2000; Kendler, Gardner, & Prescott 1997; Miller, Davies & Greenwald 2000). These studies state that being affiliated with a religion is a beneficial resource in the treatment recovery of drug abusers.
Based on the present review of the literature, it appears that religiosity is a strong predictor of substance abuse, particularly in determining the likelihood of using substances. However, there are many other variables that have attracted much attention and interest. Variables such as age, culture, socioeconomic status, and social support also play a valid role in the study of the effects of religiosity on substance abuse. A Majority of the research on the topic have shown an agreement with similar results. A direct relationship between religiosity and substance abuse was a repeating pattern in almost all of the studies. These results were common even among studies that investigated different variables along with religiosity. By understanding the effects of religiosity on substance abuse, researchers can predict beneficial treatment options and recovery plans. The two factors tend to share an inversely correlated relationship. Thoroughly based on the foregoing, it is reasonable to hypothesize that individuals that are affiliated with a religion will report lower levels of substance abuse than their counterparts.
This survey is designed to examine the effects of religiosity on substance abuse. Participants were asked to complete a four page survey consisting of four demographics questions and 20 questions on overall religiosity and 15 questions on substance abuse.
The independent variable in this study was religiosity. A questionnaire was given and asked the participants to self-report the extent of their religiosity. The independent variable was based on a median split of the composite religiosity variable.
The dependent variable of this study was substance abuse. Skinner (1982) Drug Use Questionnaire (Dast-20) was used. This 20 item questionnaire is designed to measure a person’s dependency on alcohol and substance abuse. Questions such as; “Have you abused prescription drugs?” were asked of each participant. This scale was based on a 3-point Likert type scale reflecting 3 hierarchical levels of feeling frequency (1= Sometimes, 2= Never, 3= Always). Scores were computed by summing all items on the scale, to create a composite average.
Each participant was asked to sign a consent form and was informed that the participation was voluntary and that their responses would remain confidential. No compensation was received for completing the survey. All participants were thanked for their participation in this survey.
Results and Discussion
The present study examined the effect of religiosity and substance abuse. A one-way between subjects analysis of variance compared composite drug use by religiosity (high, low).
The present study’s hypothesis was to demonstrate that individuals with high levels of religiosity will have lower levels of substance abuse. Conversely, individuals who have lower levels of religiosity will have higher levels of substance abuse.
The study of Gorsuch (1995) suggested that individuals involved positively in their religion were less likely to abuse drugs then those individuals who were involved in a restrictive/negative religion or no religion at all. His study analyzed both religion and substance abuse. This aspect demonstrated that religiosity is relevant in discussing substance abuse between individuals. Results of Allen and Lo (2010) echoed the same sentiment as Gorsuch (1995). Allen and Lo (2010) explored the effects of religiosity and substance abuse. According to them religiosity was negatively associated with substance abuse and religiosity controlled the likelihood of an individual abusing substances. Their findings supported that religion also helped those recover from substance abuse and was also used in the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse. Dunn (2005) conducted a study about the relationship between religiosity, employment, and political beliefs on substance use among high school seniors. He found that religiosity and employment were significantly correlated with alcohol use variables. This resembles the results found by both Gorsuch (1995) and Allen and Lo (2010). While there may be many aspects to religiosity, it remains a reliable predictor on substance abuse according to the literature. However, this present study failed to demonstrate such a prediction.
A study done by Brizer (1993) on religiosity and substance abuse determined that alcohol and drug use was negatively correlated with religiosity which is similar to a study conducted by Diniaco (1996) found that participants who were more involved with their religious events were not alcohol or drug abusers.
Batson, Schoenrade, and Ventis (1993) conducted a study on religious experience and an individual’s social and psychological perspective on their religion. This study suggested that religious individuals may respond to questionnaires to make their religion look more favorable so therefore, they give more desirable responses. This could be a reason as to why results were non-statistically significant. Individuals may have wanted to respond to the questionnaires to make their religion look more appealing and favorable.
Nonnemaker, McNelly, and Blum (2003) indicated that it is comprehensively known that private and public religiosity does protect against drug abuse especially among adolescents. However, little is known about how this process occurs. This study is similar to Strawser, Storch, Geffken, Killiany, and Baumeister (2004) who found that having faith in a religion was associated with less likelihood of alcohol problems and substance abuse. Moreover this study indicates that being religious may be a key factor in preventing underage drinking especially among college students.
Denscombe (1995) did a study in Leicestershire, England and the study uncovered that adolescent views towards alcohol use was correlated to their religious beliefs . Denscombe (1995) found that individuals views towards alcohol and drug use was related to their views on religion. This study relates to Gorsuch (1995) as well as Allen and Lo (2010). Students continue to strengthen and develop skills as they navigate their way through college. They are able to think more critically and therefore it is likely that they may or may not find a religion and a lifestyle suitable for them and their beliefs.
Vicary and Karshin( 2002) identified that many college students are known to drink especially those under the legal drinking age of 21. Echoing Vicary and Karshin (2002), Wechsler, Lee, Nelson, and Kuo( 2000) found that college students usually binge drink and involve themselves in high-risk behavior that include drinking as well as driving. This factor is relatable (Slicker, 1997) finding that college students who were known to drink lightly or less frequently referenced to being affiliated with a religion.
According to these studies presented, it seems as though religiosity depends on the extent of how religious a person in with to the fact of what they personally feel is ethical. Some individuals may only go to a place of worship because they feel as though it is a must in order to be faithful to their religion. Students may drink because of the stress of dealing with school, work, family, etc. Students are also peer pressured by other students to “keep up” with others whenever they’re involved in social gatherings.
Although limitations constrict a study to an extent, it also offers new insights for future research. An interesting study for further researchers would be the relationship between religiosity and substance abuse among students and non-students. Results from such a study could comment on the unanimous report of religiosity among participants in the current study and substance abuse. Perhaps it can answer the question of whether students have higher levels of substance abuse than their counterparts. Future studies may even compare four-year university students to community college students. It would be interesting to see if there are any differences in their religiosity and substance abuse. Research on religiosity and substance abuse can have included other variables such as culture, disabilities, socio economic status, and more health related issues. Religiosity is a complex multidimensional construct and more dimensions of religion should be studied such as behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. This notion enables future religiosity and substance abuse researchers to explore a variety of factors that have yet to be addressed.
Means and Standard Deviations for Composite Drug Use by Religiosity
Drug Use Questionnaire High Low
Note. The higher the mean the greater the substance abuse.
Abu- Rayya, M., & Abu-Rayya, H. (2009). The multi-religion identity
measure: A new scale for use with diverse religions. Journal of Muslim Mental Health. 4, 142-138. doi: 10.1080/15564900903245683
Albaugh, J.A. (2003). Spirituality and life-threatening illness: A phenomenologic study.
Oncology Nursing For, 30, 593-598. doi:10.1188/03.ONF.593-598
Allen, T.M., Lo, C.C (2010). Religiosity, spirituality, and substance abuse. Journal of
Drug Issues, 12, 433-459.
Al-Kandari, Y.Y. (2003). Religiosity and its relation to blood pressure among selected
Kuwaitis. Journal of Biosocial Science, 35, 463-472. doi:10.1017/S0021932003004632
Amey, C.H., Albrecht, S.L., & Miller, M.K. (1996). Racial differences in adolescent drug
use: The impact of religion. Substance Use and Misuse, 31, 1311-32. doi:10.3109/10826089609063979
Bahr, S.J., Hawks, R.D., & Wang, G. (1993). Family and religious
influences on adolescent substance abuse. Youth and Society. 24(2), 443-465
Batson, D., Schoenrade, W., & Ventis W.L. (1993). Religious experience: A social-
psychological perspective. New York: Oxford Press.
Benda, B., B., & Toombs N.,J. (2002). Religiosity and drug use among inmates in boot
camp: Testing a theoretical model with reciprocal relationships. Religion, The
Community, and the Rehabilitation of Criminal Offenders, 35(3/4), 161-183.
Benda, B., B. (1997). An examination of reciprocal relationships between religiosity and
different forms of delinquency within a theoretical model. Journal of Research in
Crime and Delinquency, 24, 163-186.
Brenda, B.B. & R.F. Corwyn.(2000). A theoretical model of religiosity and drug use
with reciprocal relationships: A test using structural equation modeling. Journal
of Social Service Review, 26(4); 43-67.
Borynski, M.L. (2003). Factors related to reductions in alcohol consumption among
Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 22(2), 138-148.
Brizer, D. A. (1993). Religiosity and druge abuse among psychiatric
inpatients. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 19, 337-345.
Brown, T.L., Parks, G.S., Zimmerman, R.S., & Phillips, C.M. (2001). The role of religion
in predicting adolescent alcohol use and problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 696-705.
Burkett, S.R. (1993). Perceived parents’ religiosity, friends’ drinking, and hellfire: A
panel study of underlying casual structures. Criminology, 25, 109-131.
Chatters, L.M., Taylor, R.J., & Lincoln, K.D. (1999). African-American religious
participation: A multi-sample comparison. Journal for the Scientific Study of
Religion, 38, 132-145.
Chitwood, D.D., Weiss, M.L., Leukefeld, C.G. (2008). A systematic
review of recent literature on religiosity and substance use. Journal of Drug Issues, 38, 653-688.
Claus, R. E. & Kindleberger, L. R. (2002). Engaging Substance Abusers after Centralized Assessment: Predictors of Treatment Entry and Dropout. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 34, 25-31.
Clayton, R.R. (1992). Transitions in drug use: Risk and protective factors. In M. Glantz
& R. Pickens (Eds.), Vulnerability to Drug Use. (pp. 15-51). Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
Cronin, C. (1995). Religiosity, religious affiliation, and alcohol and drug
use among American college students living in Germany. The International Journal of Addictions, 30, 231-238.
Denscombe M. (1995). Ethnic group and alcohol consumption: The case of 15-16 year
olds in Leicestershire. Public Health, 109,133-142.
Diniaco G. (1996). The relationship of family status and alcohol and other drug use
among adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University. 1996.
Dossey, L. (2000). Prayer and medical science. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160,
Dunn, M.S. (2005). The relationship between religiosity, employment, and political
beliefs on substance use among high school seniors. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 49(1), 73-88.
Ellickson, P.L., & Hays, R.D. (1991). Beliefs about resistance self-efficacy and drug
prevalence: Do they really affect drug use? International Journal of Addictions, 25, 1353-1378.
Ellison, C.G. (1991). Religious involvement and subjective well-being. Journal of Health
Social Behavior, 32, 80-99.
Francis L.J. & Mullen K. (1993). Religiosity and attitudes towards drug use among 13-15
Gorsuch, R.L. (1995). Religious aspects of substance abuse and recovery. Journal of
Social Issues. 51(2), 65-83.
Greeley, A.M. (1989). Religious change in America. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard Univerisy Press.
Jones, T.L. (1995). Religion’s role in health. What’s God got to do with it? Texas
Medicine, 91 (12), 24-29.
Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., & Bachman, J.G. (1996). Nation survey results on drug
use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1994. Vol. 1. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Kandel, D.B. (1980). Drug and drinking behavior among youth. Annual
Review of Sociology, 6, 235-285.
Kaplan, H.B., Martin, S.S., & Robbins, C. (1984). Pathways to
adolescent drug use: Self-derogation peer influence, weakening of social controls, and early substance use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 270-289.
Kendler, K.S., Gardner, C.O, & Prescott, C.A (1997). Religion, psychopathology, and
substance use and abuse; A multimeasure, genetic-epidemiologic study. American Journal of Psychiatry 154, 322-329.
Kutter, C.J., & McDermott, D.S. (1997) The role of church in adolescent drug eduction.
Levinson, R.A., Jaccard, J., & Beamer, L. (1995). Older adolescents’ engagement in
casual sex. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 349-364.
Matsueda, R.L. (1989). The dynamics of moral beliefs and minor deviance. Social
Forces, 68, 428-457.
Miller, W.R. (1998). Researching the spiritual dimension of alcohol and other drug
problems. Addiction 93(7); 979-990.
Miller, L., Davies, M., & Greenwald, S. (2000). Religiosity and substance use and abuse
among adolescents in the Nation Comorbidity Survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 1190-1197.
Mullen K. & Francis L. (1995). Religiosity and attitudes towards drug use among Dutch
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2003). Drug use among racial and ethnic minorities.
NIH Publication No. 03-3888. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Nonnemaker, J.M., McNeely, C.A., & Blum, R.W. (2003). Public and private domains of
religiosity and adolescent health risk behaviors: Evidence from the National
Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 2049-
Paulson, R.L., Eppler, M.A, Satterwhite, T.N., Wuensch, K.L., & Bass, L.A. (1998).
Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in
Piko, B. (2001). Smoking in adolescence: Do attitudes matter? Addictive Behaviors, 26,
Pullen, L., Modricin-Talbott, M.A., West W.R., & Muenchen R. (1999). Spiritual high vs
high on spirits: Is religiosity related to adolescent alcohol and drug abuse.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2001). Substance Abuse: The
nation’s number one health problem. Princeston, NJ: Authors.
Rodney, E.H., Mupier, R., & Crafter, B. (1996). Predictors of Alcohol Drinking Among African- American Adolescents: Implications for Violence Prevention. The Journal of Negro Education: p. 434-445.
Sanchez, Z. V.D.M., Garcia De Oliveira, L., & Nappo, S. A. (2008).
Religiosity as a protective factory against the use of drugs. Substance Use & Misuse, 43, 1476-1486.doi: 10.1080/10826080802183288
Seeman, T.E., Dubin, L.F., & Seeman, M. (2003). Religiosity/spirituality and health: A
critical review of the evidence for biological pathways. American Psychologist, 58, 53-63.
Schall, M., Kemeny, A., & Maltzman, I. (1992). Factors associated with alcohol use in
Singh H. & Mustapha N. (1994). Some factors associated with substance abuse among
secondary school students in Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Drug Education. 24, 83-93.
Skinner, H.A. The Drug Abuse Screening Test. Addict Behavior 1982; 7(4): 363-367.
Slicker, E.K. (1997). University students’ reasons for not drinking: Relationship to
alcohol consumption level. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 42(2), 83-102.
Strawser, M.S., Storch, E.A., Geffken, G.R., Killiany, E.M., & Baumeister, A.L. (2004).
Religious faith and substance problems in undergraduate college students: A replication. Pastoral Psychology, 53,(2), 183-188.
Sullivan, W.P. (1993). It helps me to be a whole person: The role of spirituality among
the mentally challenged. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 16, 125-134.
Tanyi, R.A., & Wener, J.S. (2003). Adjustment, spirituality, and health in women on
hemodialysis. Clinical Nursing Research, 12, 229-245.
Taylor, R. (1988). Correlates of religious non-involvement among Black Americans.
Review of Religious Research, 30,126-139.
Underwood, L.G., Teresi, J.A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale:
Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and
preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 22-33.
Vicary, J., & Karshim, C.M. (2002). College alcohol abuse: A review of the problems,
issues, and prevention approaches. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22(3), 299- 331.
Wallace, Jr. J.M., Delva, J., O’Malley, P.M., Bacman J.G., Schulenburg
J.E., Johnston, L.D., Steward, C. (2007). Race/ethnicity, religiosity, and adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Social Work in Public Health.23(2/3), 193-213.doi:10.1080/19371910802152059
Wallace Jr., J.M., Brown, T.N., Bachman, J.G, & LaVeist, T.A. (2003).
The influence of race and religion on abstinence from alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana among adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64, 843-848.
Wallace Jr., J.M., & Forman, T.A. (1998). Religion’s role in promoting health and
reducing risk among American youth. Health Education and Behavior, 25, 721-741.
Wallace Jr., J.M., & Williams D.R. (1997). Religion and adolescent health-compromising
behavior. In J. Schulenberg, J.L. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence. (pp. 444-469). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Walton, J. (1999). Spirituality of patients recovering from an acute myocardial infarction: A grounded theory study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17, 34-53.
Wechsler, H., Kuo M., Lee H., & Dowdall G. (2000). Environmental correlated of
underage alcohol use and related problems of college students. American
Wills, T.A., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Murry, V.M., & Brody, G.H. (2003). Family
communication and religiosity related to substance use and sexual behavior in
early adolescence: A test for pathways through self-control and prototype
perceptions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 312-323.
Wills, Yaeger, & Sandy (2003). Buffering effects of religiosity for adolescent and
substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 17, 24-31.