Cheng, C., & Hoekstra, M. (2012). Does Strengthening Self-Defense Law Deter Crime or Escalate Violence? Evidence from Expansions to Castle Doctrine . Journal of Human Resources , 1-43.
The findings published in the journal indicate that the adoption of the stand your ground laws increases the crime rate. The study found that there was a 7-9% increase in manslaughter rates and that adoption of the laws increased justifiable homicide by 17-50%.
Jansen, S., & Nugent-Borakove, M. E. (2007). Expansions to the Castle Doctrine: Implications for Policy and Practice. National District Attorneys Association Symposium (pp. 1-24). National District Attorneys Association.
- Concerns have been raised that criminals may invoke the laws in their defense and escape punishment.
- There is a posibility to misinterpret clues and kill or harm an innocent person where there is no threat.
- There is also the mental anguish resulting from knowing that any one can use lethal force in a simple conflict.
- Another concern that has been raised in opposition to the stand your ground laws is that specific strict standards and codes of conduct deny law enforcement officers the immunity afforded the general public under the castle laws. This means the police are vulnerable to harm by the very public they are supposed to protect. In addition, the law impedes the application of “no-knock” warrants because the suspect can use deadly force against an officer who is in the process of implementing the no knock warrants.
- Lastly there is a need to conduct an extensive research to clear the controversy on whether the law increases or dicreases crime rates
Lott, J. (2013, October 28). Perspective: In defense of stand your ground laws. Retrieved April 21, 2014, from Chicago Tribune : http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-10-28/opinion/ct-oped-1029-guns-20131029_1_ground-laws-blacks-ground-defense
The website gives details indicating that contrary to the popular belief, the stand your ground laws do not discriminate but protect the African American. The website indicate that only 16.6% of Florida’s population is blacks yet 31% of the defendants that invoke the standard your ground laws are blacks, implying the law is more useful to the blacks. In addition, 69% of the blacks invoking the stand your ground laws are acquited compared to 62% of the whites
Lott, J. R. (2010). More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
The book presents the findings of a study indicating that states with less stringent gun control laws have shown a decline in crime rates and murder. The research found that “more guns” have reduced the violent crime by 11% and murder rates by 9%. The study further indicated that murder rate declines by 3%, robberies by more than 2% and rape by 2% every year that a concealed handgun law is in effect
Thomson Reuters. (2014). States That Have Stand Your Ground Laws. Retrieved April 22, 2014, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-law-basics/states-that-have-stand-your-ground-laws.html
The website provides a detailed account of the categories of state self defense laws and the states that have adopted the different categories. The state self defense laws are categorized into duty to retreat laws, castle laws and stand your ground law. The duties to retreat laws require that one retreats from a situation and only use deadly force as a last resort. The castle laws only allow one to use lethal force in threatening situations in a private real property. The stand your ground laws allow the victim of a felony to use deadly force in a threatening situation no matter the location .