Annotated Bibliography for Terrorism
Broomhall, B. (2004). State actors in an international definition of terrorism from a human rights perspective. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 36(2-3), 421-441.
Some of the examples of terrorism provided by Broomhall (2004) include hostage-taking and the indiscriminate targeting of civilians, as well as acts of genocide and war crimes.
The international terrorism aspect of this article will allow a more in depth view into the various activities that differentiate domestic from international terrorism, including the legal ramifications that are attached to both forms. Highlighting the International Criminal Court’s definition of terrorism will help to shape the information that will be used in the intended research paper.
Farrell, L. C., & Littlefield, R. S. (2012). Identifying communication strategies in cases of domestic terrorism: Applying cultural context to the Fort Hood shooting. Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management, 9(1), 1-18. doi:10.1515/1547-7355.1949
Through examining the 2009 Fort Hood, TX shooting that occurred on a military base, the view of domestic terrorism is addressed, including the difference between domestic terrorism and other crisis events, including international terrorism. According to this article, one of the main objectives of domestic terrorism (and terrorism as a whole) is to communicate with as many people as possible, which is more likely to accompany violent attacks, as media outlets will cover such events. One of the main differences in regards to the way domestic terrorism is approached is by viewing it through the lens of cultural context. This article will be used to domestic terrorism can have international ties.
Hinkkainen, K. (2013). Homegrown terrorism: The known unknown. Peace Economics, Peace Science, & Public Policy, 19(2), 157-182. doi:10.1515/peps-2012-0001
This article provides a different view of domestic terrorism as it pertains to the occurrence of domestic terrorism within different countries as opposed to just domestic terrorism that happens within the United States. By examining the 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings, a deeper understanding of the various factors that contribute to the changing nature of domestic terrorism. While domestic and international terrorism share some variables and causes, domestic terrorism and homegrown terrorists are quite different due to the fact that they are often born and raised in the countries they have attacked after appearing to live “normal” lives.
Such terrorism is often considered to be more damaging to the psyche of the citizens as they are unable to identify who among them is a potential terrorist.
Nuzzo, A. (2004). Reasons for conflict: Political implications of a definition of terrorism.Metaphilosophy, 35(3), 330-344. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9973.2004.00322.x
This article provides a contrast between the political system that were in place in the United States before the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The evolving definition of terrorism is also included, which, according to the article, has received a lot of influence from George W. Bush’s declaration of “war on terrorism,” which occurred in response to the events of 9/11. Domestic terrorism has changed the face of civil disobedience, which was shaped by the likes of Martin Luther King Jr. in an attempt to bring about change. What was once deemed permissible by citizens are now classified as potentially dangerous actions due to the changing political environment that has been shaped greatly by international terrorist activities.
Ruby, C. L. (2002). The definition of terrorism. Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy,2(1), 9-14. doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2002.00021.x
In order to understand terrorism, the author examines the various definitions and events that have helped to shape what is considered as an act of terrorism. An assessment of U.S. Codes and past terrorist events that have occurred both in the U.S. and overseas is included, as well as the idea that despite the fact that more people die in the United States in auto accidents or are murdered annually, more attention is paid to terrorism and the violent acts that are carried out allows for a deeper understanding to the way terrorism is viewed in contrast to other violent crimes, as many view terrorism as more traumatic due to the seemingly random nature of the violence.
Wright, M. (2011). Domestic terrorism, cyber-radicalization, & U.S. college students.Forensic Examiner, 20(3), 10-18.
The advancement of technology has changed the methods of which terrorists have been able to recruit and threaten citizens of the United States. This article outlines various terrorist organizations that have been influenced by the Global Salafi Jihad ideology, as well as the radicalization of college students who were born and raised in the United States, only to turn around and commit acts of terrorism in their own home country. Examining the various motivations that contribute to the cyber-radicalization of college students allows for an understanding of how the radicalization process occurs, which according to this article, occurs in four stages. This article also addresses the fact that those who have become radicalized have decreased in age over the past decade, including those who act as “lone wolf” terrorists.