1) One of the most influential political theories for a long time was realism. Its focus has traditionally remained the problem of power, war and peace. International politics is characterized by anarchy and a constant struggle for existence and protection of the interests. The condition of a peaceful coexistence between states is to maintain a balance of power.
Liberals believe it possible to build a world order without wars, inequality and tyranny. They focus on study of the conditions of peace and justice in world politics. Despite the fact that wars are inevitable, contradictions between states must be overcome through collective efforts, based on the desire of most states to peace. Non-state actors increasingly affect international politics, and in some cases operate independently from the state.
Constructivists believe that the main task of the state is not confined to the issue of security. States may have long-term common interests and actively influence the international system. Constructivists emphasize that not only security but also the influence of culture, language, ideology and knowledge is essential in the concept of power. International politics is not managed by any objective laws; this is an area of historical accident. Cooperation is influenced by ideas, norms, values and knowledge possessed by political entities.
Critical theorists represent international relations in the form of a global empire, the periphery of which remains under the oppression of the center even after gaining by colonial states their political independence. This is manifested in the inequality of economic exchanges and uneven development.
2) The General Assembly in particular examines the principles of cooperation in the field of international peace and security, coordinates international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural and humanitarian spheres; exercise other powers stipulated by the UN Charter. The Security Council plays a major role in maintaining international peace and security. It may investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international frictions. In addition, the Security Council determines the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression and makes recommendations to the parties or decides what measures should be taken to restore international peace and security. Economic and Social Council may initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health and other issues. The main objectives of the Trusteeship Council are to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories, and its progressive development towards self-government or independence. International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It resolves disputes on the basis of international law and applies international conventions, rules recognized by the contesting states; international customs, general principles of law recognized by civilized nations and other documents. The UN Secretariat is responsible for ensuring the proper functioning of the other principal and subsidiary organs of the UN, the service of their activities, implementation of their decisions, and the implementation of policies and programs of the UN. I think that the UN has succeeded in achieving its aims, as for many years, the UN helped to prevent and end international crises and armed conflicts. UN took part in resolving the Cuban missile crisis (1962), the crisis in the Middle East (1973), participated in the settlement of the Iran-Iraq War (1988), the Afghan civil war (1979-2001), Guatemala, Cambodia, Mozambique, etc. During its existence, the UN had taken important for all states the international documents on human rights, international law, and nuclear safety. Among them: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the UN Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1963), Vienna Convention for the protection of the Ozone layer (1985).
3) The first step towards the creation of the modern European Union was made in 1951: Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Italy signed a treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, the purpose of which was to unite European resources for the production of coal and steel. With the aim of deepening economic integration the same six states in 1957 established the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community. The most important and wide of the three European Communities was the EEC. The process of development and evolution of these European Communities into a modern European Union occurred by transferring an increasing number of management functions to a supranational level and increasing the number of participants of the integration. I think that the main reason for creation of EU was economic cooperation - at first in separate sectors of the economy, then economic cooperation in all areas for the possibility to compete with larger countries. It achieved its aims as it created a space without internal borders, strengthened economic and social interaction between states and made a single currency. Europe is now in decline; after the financial crisis ended, the EU demonstrates the terrible economic performance. Not all EU states fully settled their economic problems.
4) UNHCR is an international organization created in 1949 to coordinate the work of the UN system in emergency situations with a large number of refugees. Its main task is to create conditions for the survival of refugees.
UN-HABITAT is the UN program for promotion sustainable development of human settlements. It was founded in 1978 and became a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly. The headquarter of the organization is based in Nairobi (Kenya).
International Labor Organization - specialized agency of the UN, created in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles by the League of Nations. According to the charter, ILO goals are to achieve a comprehensive and lasting peace based on social justice and the improvement of existing working conditions that can be achieved by regulation of working time; regulation of labor recruitment by combating unemployment; providing satisfactory living conditions, etc.
UNDP - international organization designed to promote the economic development of nations, in coordination with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the main offices of the global banking group or regional banks. It accumulates funds distributed as technical assistance for all aspects of disaster management.
The International Organization for Migration was founded in 1951, and the main precondition for its creation was the necessity to regulate large flows of migrants in Europe after World War II. IOM is working with governments, other international organizations and public associations in order to ensure worldwide the movement of refugees and other persons who need assistance in international migration.
5) European Council - the highest political body of the European Union, which composes the heads of states and governments of EU member states. It determines the basic strategic directions of EU development. Formulation of the general line of political integration is the main mission of the European Council.
Council of Ministers - along with the European Parliament, one of the two legislative bodies of the European Union. The Council plays a key role in those areas of European integration, where decision-making occurs at the intergovernmental level. The Council is most competent in the spheres of a common foreign and security policy and cooperation on domestic issues.
The European Commission (EC) is the highest executive body of the European Union. The tasks of the EC - coordination of the executive authorities of all EU countries, to develop recommendations for the activities of the European Parliament, monitoring compliance by all 28 countries of common European standards, as well as human rights and freedoms, conduct consultations for the development of a unified economic, military, foreign , cultural policy.
European Parliament is the legislative body of the European Union, directly elected by citizens of countries - members of the Union. It has three major tasks: legislation, budgeting and control of the European Commission.
Court of Justice is the highest court of the EU. The Court holds its meetings in Luxembourg, and it consists of the European Court (the highest court), the court of general jurisdiction (first instance) and the Civil Service Tribunal.