The Main Features of Introverts' behavior in the social environment
As is known, introversion is one of the most common categories or indicators to measure personality traits. Introverts are people whose personality traits are very different from those of other people, who can also be called extroverts. Introverts tend to accumulate their energy and direct it to their inner world, while extroverts waste their energy on the interaction with the outside world. If an extrovert needs a constant dialogue with the people, an introvert can successfully do without it. An introvert is capable of minimal contact, which is also necessary, but it happens rarely and only in the companies of close people. In society, many introverted people feel depressed; such type of a person feels uncomfortable as close attention takes too much energy from them. Contact with the outside world does not only exhaust introverts, but also suppresses their mentally. An introvert can hardly speak with a stranger or shows a clear interest in anything. Moreover, introverts have a fairly sophisticated approach to relationships. With regard to the psychological and intellectual development, it is impossible to say that introverts are more or less developed than extroverts.
Introverts and small talks. Usually, it is quite difficult for introverts to maintain small talks because they do not consider them meaningful. Extroverts, for example, can use idle talks in order to get close to other people or to make interest with an unfamiliar person. Introverts, by contrast, try to avoid pointless conversations, as they find getting closer to strangers quite difficult. However, introverts "tend to do well in the online environment and prefer computer-mediated communication"(Lawrence, 2015, p. 100). Some people may perceive such introverts' behavior as unfriendly or even abnormal. However, one must understand that this is just a psychological personality trait. One is not born as an introvert but rather becomes an introvert in the course of development. The most important thing in an introvert's life is going on inside. This does not mean that a person does not see the outside world, as he or she just pays much less attention to it. Even looking at the world, introverts look at everything through the prism of themselves. It turns out that an introvert feels insecure about small talks with a stranger. When an introvert talks to someone, he or she becomes vulnerable, while the one who talking to him or her takes the conversation as a usual sign of courtesy. In such cases, introverts may feel uncomfortable or even offended by their companion, because a small talk defeats the purpose of the very introvert. Introverts find complicated establishing links included in an alien world of other people's emotions. They are difficult to assimilate the adequate behavioral forms and therefore often appear "awkward". Their subjective point of view may become more grounded than the objective situation.
Dealing with the spotlight. Basically, introverts are hard to bear attention. Public attention makes them tense and nervous. Introverts are characteristic of behavior associated with comfort loneliness, inner thoughts and feelings, creativity or supervision of the process. An introvert can be an excellent scientist, researcher, supervisor, or a writer. If extroverts cannot live without contact with other people, introverts usually deliberately avoid it. Being among a large number of people annoys introverts. Moreover, "extroverts benefited more from cognitive activation than did introverts" (Von Gehlen and Sachse, 2015, p. 608). When they are in a crowd, in a classroom or in a noisy environment, their energy flows off. They may really like other people, but introverts typically experience a burning desire to get away, take a break after talking with one person for a while. It is not egocentrism but rather isolation or insularity. Moreover, it is extraversion that "correlates with narcissism, a tendency towards self-centeredness, associated with self-enhancement and egocentrism" (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 345). Introvert's world is a world of experiences, feelings and thoughts. A person nourishes into it in order to recuperate after a collision with external reality. The world outside gives an introvert more tests than joys. However, such a person knows his or her inner world and refuge inside and out. Public attention takes from introverts too much energy. "Any cue that emphasizes a public check of one’s accuracy is likely to engage these concerns and generate constraints" (Schlenker, Lifka and Wowra, 2004, p. 203). Extraverts feel that they are confident in the society and receive from it a kind of energy charge, while introverts feel exhaustion.
Introverts and relationships. Introverts' relations manifest themselves in different ways. On the other hand, introverts find the source of energy in their inner world of ideas, emotions and experiences. Contrary to popular opinion about them, they are not necessarily silent or confined people, as the focus of their attention lies within themselves, which is contrary to extraverts who "relish being the center of attention, as they dominate social/business settings and conversations" (Santos, 2015, p. 57). They need a quiet place where he or she can thoroughly think things through and organize their thoughts. On this basis, one can say that introverts are usually quite restrained in the manifestation of the feelings that may affect their personal relationships. Introverts feel more comfortable being in a relationship with the other introverts. Even so, there may be some difficulties. Two introverts feel too bored being together because both are waiting for initiatives from each other, but both are the same and do not show it. Therefore, an extrovert or a person with a mixed type of personality can become the ideal partner for an introvert. This clearly suggests that sociability items differentiate extraverts from introverts primarily on the basis of "the desire to affiliate with strangers in pleasant circumstances" (Fox, 1984, p. 9). The harmonious interaction is only possible between two opposites. Introvert and extrovert contact freely but do not always understand it, so they often look for friends among their own kind, and then they themselves do not know how to deal with them.
Introverts and engaging in classes. Basically, introverts are less inclined to take the initiative in the outside world. Thus, it is very simple to determine an introvert. First, they show their character at school. Introverts behave very modestly during their classes; they are unlikely want to talk until they are asked to. However, according to Lawrence (2015), there are some exclusions: one of his students was "more introverted with a preference for kinesthetic" while the other one was "an extrovert with auditory preference" (p. 68). It should be noted that introverts are usually loners at their school or university classes. Introverts generally do not experience difficulties in training, even though it is difficult for them to express adequately. However, when the time comes to written examinations, these people are doing a fine job with the tasks, as it is easier to focus. According to Von Gehlen and Sachse (2015), introverts "benefited less from cognitive activation in the consecutive task than did extroverts", which could be explained by "over arousal and stress"(p. 608). Nevertheless, the majority of introverts face difficulties during other tasks requiring verbal communication. These difficulties are related to the nature of introverts, which is expressed in their shyness and modesty. Even if such a person knows the answer to any question, he or she does not always respond to it.
The behavior of introverts in class may differ from the behavior of other students. Though an introvert is self-absorbed, it does not prevent him or her to focus and listen to the professor carefully. In class, introverts tend to be less active than the other disciples. Moreover, they can "avoid contact with their classmates for several years" (Lawrence, 2015, p. 67). Basically, they are immersed in themselves so much that no longer hear what is happening around. All this is reflected in their relationships with peers; due to a rare communication, few people know what they really are. Introvert rarely share secrets and experiences, while extroverts consider this practice as a necessity, otherwise their emotional state may worsen. In addition, one can say that introverts are more vulnerable than extroverts; introvert takes any conflict very seriously, even if it is not essential. That is why there are numerous school activities that aim to "reduce youth violence by promoting constructive anger control and conflict resolution skills" in order to "improve intergroup relations and to foster a caring and peaceful community of learning" (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 451).
Introverts looking for jobs and work environment. Modern society is a society of extroverts, and not every introvert finds an acceptable method of adaptation in this world. Hence, loneliness is a painful condition for an extrovert, while an introvert would call it freedom. For instance, an extrovert would feel like a fish in water in the crowd, but an introvert would find it a serious psychological burden, which is equivalent to stress. Specific sources of introverts' stress involves "poor physical working conditions surrounding the worker include inadequate lighting, noise, pathogenic agents, physical danger, crowded space, and lack of privacy" (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 490). They are patient and persistent, thoughtful and judicious; they have analytical thinking and are less susceptible to the influence of others, while extroverts are more impulsive and superficial. Their achievements in the professional field are not always immediately visible, although there are many international celebrities-introverts: e.g. Al Gore, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Condoleezza Rice, and Lady Margaret Thatcher; Microsoft founder Bill Gates and IBM’s Lou Gerstener represent introverts in the corporate world; "Walt Disney illustrates the introvert type in entertainment, Citibank chairman John Reed and mega-investor George Soros in finance, and Albert Einstein in academia" (Zichy and Bidou, 2007, p. 131). Introverts do not try to break themselves to become extroverts; it will lead to nothing but a discontent. In addition, introverts can implement many professions in the best possible way. One of the most suitable professions for introverts are the following: "accountant, programmer, designer, writer, florist," and many others (Zichy and Bidou, 2007, p. 132). Introverts do an excellent job with the head duties and work well with animals. The work environment that suites introverts should be calm and balanced. Introverts need to calm; they are able to focus and carry out their work efficiently in a quiet environment. Moreover, introverts are "likely to be ineffective on the job if they are not empathetic or have low self-regulation" (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 487). Thus, working environment that implies constant communication with the people can have a negative impact on the quality of the introverts 'job performance.
However, it would be a mistake to say that introverts cannot work in an environment that is more suitable for extroverts. People who prone to introversion are able to adapt to different conditions. If necessary, they can ignore the external stimuli and can cope well with their work. However, if the introvert operates in an environment that is better suited to its nature, its efficiency becomes much higher. Lawrence (2015) cites an example when one of his students of the typical introverted type of personality was more active during the classes than the extroverted students: "he was the only participant that identified some specific objective to the seminar on his own without being asked to do so" (pp. 68-69).
Introvert and identity. An introvert has necessary to focus specifically on aspects of the outside world to communicate effectively with them, and, while an extrovert, on the contrary, is completely absorbed by what is happening around him or her. Introverts are quiet, thoughtful, and judicious – i.e., their time flows slowly and even viscously. They are slow, inert and sometimes clumsy. However, some researches show that "social support that validates desired identity images is related to the psychological well-being of the recipient; it acts as a buffer against stress, reduces negative affect and depression, and enhances positive affect and self-esteem" (Schlenker, Lifka and Wowra, 2004, p. 192). At their best, introverts are balanced, calm people who look deeper into things; moreover, introverts are good strategists. They see the situation more deeply and in a more global way. Extroverts are tacticians - they need war and a victory here and now. Introverts are silent and passive - they are happy to give up initiative. It is easier for an introvert to observe and comment from their dark corners than to climb on the podium and to get the audience by their own. They are intelligent, cultured and are often pathologically kind. In addition, it should be noted that "extroverts have lower arousability levels than do introverts", therefore, introverts are vulnerable enough and thus rarely strike back (Von Gehlen and Sachse, 2015, p. 602). Introverts do not like strong impressions, they control their emotions, and they are more pessimistic, not aggressive and tend to a calm orderly life. Such psychological mode is "more defensive, while the other is more aggressive" (Santos, 2015, p. 45). Introverts cannot act contrary to their beliefs, and if they still have to go for it or accidentally violate their internal rules, they feel bad and are emotional over. They often refer to the strict ethical guidelines, but they seldom violate generally established rules of social life: introverts react with "negative emotion when others violate these norms (which, of course, vary from culture to culture)" (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 156).
Introverts channel their curiosity. Introvert's expression of interest may look like a stupor. They will not take an active part but will watch the object of their interest from afar. Introverts tend to the long-term studies of their objects or people of interest. Therefore, if a person is interested in something serious, he or she will study it for a long time before moving on to action. For example, an introvert can talk about music endlessly, attributing his or her "continuing fascination to his or her typical curiosity and insatiable desire to keep learning" (Zichy, Shoya, and Bidou, 2007, p. 149). However, this quality cannot be considered a disadvantage; while an introvert studies the subject of interest, he or she is able to understand whether the subject is worthy of attention or not. This feature reduces the level of failures, mistakes and disappointments. Thus, if an introvert expresses an interest, it happens quickly and not obtrusively. If an extrovert will pursue the object of interest or will talk about it as soon as the interest has arisen, an introvert will rather just stop and look carefully at the essence of interest. The extroverted psychological mode manifests the focus of interest to the outside world: to other people, to things; that is, the external factors are the main driving force. An introvert, on the other hand, is immersed into the inner world of his or her thoughts, feelings and experiences; an introvert is contemplative and tends to move away from the objects of interest as such people are usually focused on themselves. An extrovert's "flow of psychic energy is directed towards the objects," while an introvert's flow of psychic energy is directed inwards (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 579).
Introverts and exams. Typically, introverts easily pass any exams, if nobody interferes with the preparation for them. Such people quite easily concentrate on complex tasks: introverts tend to get high scores on written exams, as they do not have to engage in a conversation with their professor and because they have more profound "cognitive or motivational aspects of adaptation" (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 141). However, pure extroverts or introverts can hardly exist in real life. Each has the features of those and others; it depends on the innate qualities of nervous system, age, education, and life circumstances. Nevertheless, one cannot say that introverts are more likely to pass exams well than extroverts are, and vice versa. Personality type is not always the deciding factor in the exams. Both introverts and extroverts can be the successful students. According to researches, there are no specific differences in intellectual development of both extroverts and introverts (Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004, p. 39).
Basically, prearrangements can act as the only difficulties of passing any exams. If extroverts are prone to intense and constant contact with both the teacher and with other students, introverts try to analyze the information according to their own guesswork. Therefore, if an introvert misses something in the preparatory classes, it can be quite difficult to cope with the task at the exam. Moreover, during the stressful period, introverted students "performed better on executive function tasks and recorded faster reaction times than during less stressful times" (Von Gehlen and Sachse, 2015, p. 602). On the other hand, extraverts typically use the knowledge that has been obtained in the class, thus, they do not give enough time to self study. In turn, introverts often apply to the in-depth analysis; they are prone to self-learning and self study more than extroverts are. Perseverance and diligence, which are often inherent in introverts, help them to prepare well for the exams and pass them successfully.
Connection with likeminded people. As stated above, introverts find it difficult to make new acquaintances. In this regard, one can say that such people rarely come into contact, and if they do, then behave very reserved. Sometimes introverts do need an interlocutor, since every person eventually needs to share their own thoughts and experiences with someone. Hence, introverts often find people like themselves for such communication. Introverts rather difficultly share their experiences with extroverts because they usually think that they do not listen. It should also be noted that it is often very pleasant to deal with introverts because many of them have a sense of responsibility and devotion that causes credibility. In addition, to them, "social networks exist for the purposes of self-promotion, but face-to-face interactions are excellent opportunities to share the news as well" (Santos, 2015, p. 111). Therefore, introverts are able to tell about themselves much more during such communication than when dealing in the company; moreover, such type of people tends to listen to their interlocutor very carefully and thoughtfully. Communicating with introverts is not tense because any possibility of angering the interlocutor is a disaster for them. Introverts do not like hard and spirited conversation; they are more inclined to quiet conversation. On this basis, one can say that introverts tend to communicate with people of the same type as themselves. People with similar characters get along well together. They do not have to explain twice the same information, and misunderstandings or conflicts occur rarely between them. Many introverts believe that trust in communicate is some kind of a loss of vigilance or even naivety, which already indicates some difficulty in relationship. "Fifteen traits were relevant to extraversion (e.g., outgoing, talkative, extraverted, life of the party) and introversion (e.g., reflective, reserved, introspective, serene)" (Schlenker, Lifka and Wowra, 2004, p. 198). That is why introverts understand introverts better than they understands extroverts.
In conclusion, introverts and extroverts are the two opposite personality types. The former turn their vital energy inwards; such people are interested in their inner world; their emotions are of great importance for them. Extroverts direct their vital energy to the outside world. Such people are interested in the real external objects, social and practical aspects of life, while introverts concerns more about the world of thoughts and their imagination. Introverts have a complicated contact with other people, because it is difficult to communicate and adapt to the constantly changing conditions of the social environment. They are unsociable, modest, shy and mysterious. Not every job can suit an introvert; if introverts are in a violent environment, the level of their activity significantly reduces. Nevertheless, one cannot say that the level of introverts' intelligence is too different from the level of extroverts' sophistication.
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