Peers at adolescent often have developed a close relationship with one another. This paper will focus on the major learning objectives in this course that tends t explore this idea of peer close relationship witnessed at adolescent. It will help understand the popularity, aggression and rejection among peers during adolescent as well as determining the determinants of popularity and rejection that is witnessed among the adolescent peers. It is also vital to understand the difference between intimacy and sexuality and why the development of intimacy becomes an important concern in adolescence. In order to fully explore this theme, Sullivan’s theory of interpersonal development that describes the perspective of attachment theory and how it is applied will help understand the development of intimacy during adolescence. The scope of this study also outlines the development of intimacy in adolescence, which includes changes in nature of friendship, display of intimacy and targets of intimacy as well sex difference in intimacy. These highlighted factors will form the learning objectives in this course.
Peers relations is exhibited in three different statuses that includes peer group and psychological development as well as close relationships that involves theoretical perspectives of Sllivan’s attachment in addition to development of intimacy changes that are manifested in nature of friendship, display of intimacy, self difference in intimacy often referred to as targets of intimacy. This results into adjustment in the peer group. For instance peer popularity measures peer assessment sociometric nominations, sociometric rating scales and sociometric status. The major sociometric categories include popularity, rejected, neglected, average and controversial. The chief determinant of popularity during adolescent are eminent in social skills such as acting appropriate in the eyes of peers that includes meeting the needs of others and being confident but not to be conceited. In the same context, girls and boys are often are aggressive and popular at the same time especial by involving the use of instrumental aggression. The aggression and poor emotion regulation creates problem among the peers.
Three types of unpopular adolescents Aggressive Fights, bullies withdrawn Shy, timid, inhibited and victimization. Boys are more physically aggressive than girls. However, women peers act aggressive in most cases towards their male counterpart, but often engage in relational aggression, ruin a reputation and disrupt a friendship. Unpopular peers may be devoid of social skills required to understand and be popular with their peers. Hostile attribution bias plays central role in aggressive behavior of rejected adolescent. Teens with meager peer associations are more likely to, be school low achievers, drop out of high school, have different learning incapacities, show higher rates of criminal conduct and suffer from emotive and mental health problems.
In promoting usual improvement, peers provide models and response in regard to identity that sway self-image, assist the development of autonomy, provide a background for decision-making aids, intermingle in friendly and sexual relationships and influence one another regarding achievement. Intimacy and adolescent have developed issues among which include distinction between intimacy and sexuality where intimacy includes emotional attachment characterized by openness, trustworthiness, self-disclosure, and expectation. Intimacy becomes a vital anxiety due to: stronger emotional foundation to friendships, changes of puberty – new concerns dating, sex. Teens prefer to discuss with friends. Changes in social cognition allow more mature relationships. In this case, social roles changes with more opportunity to have more intimate discussions with friends.
Sullivan’s theory emphasizes on the aspects of growth especially the psychological development. It changes in the adolescent’s relationship with others. It involves progression in from early infancy, early and middle childhood, pre, early-mid and late adolescence. The theory involves key aspects such as self development, psychological development and capacity for intimacy.
Quality of teen attachment to peers is affected by both early and later close relationships. Development of intimacy in adolescence changes the nature of friendship with companionship appearing before adolescence and intimacy emerging later. Development in adolescence changes the nature of friendship with younger adolescents conflicting over nature of public disrespect. Older adolescent have conflicts over private matters.
Development of intimacy in adolescent changes as intimacy gets displayed more with more knowledge expressed about friends, more responsive to close friends, friends becoming more interpersonally sensitive as they resolves conflicts more frequently by negotiations and show of empathy. However, girls’ relationships are more intimate than boys as gender differences in types of friendships and expression of intimacy takes underway. Close friendships in male may start at a later age than in females.
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