The Pharmacotherapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is varied but revolve around attempts to ensure that blood glucose levels are lowered. The primary treatments for type 2 diabetes involve controlling the diet and exercise. In severe cases, medications may be recommended.
Diet and weight control
Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes should eat at about the same times each day and ensure that they are as consistent as possible to the types of food they choose to eat. This attempt will ensure that the blood sugar levels are always kept constant. This is best achieved through meal planning which includes choosing healthy foods, eating the right amount of food and at the right times. The amount of fat and carbohydrates that a person takes should be closely monitored by a trained medical practitioner. The weight of the patient should be closely monitored. Patients should continue taking the medications even after they have already lost their weights. Bariatric surgery may also be considered for the overweight patients.
Regular physical activities
This is very important as it helps in lowering the blood sugar levels by burning excess calories and fat so that a person can manage to lose the weight. The exercises also help in improving the blood flow and blood pressure at the same time decreasing insulin resistance. Exercises also help in reducing tension, improving a person’s ability to handle stress and also increase the body’s energy level.
Medications that can be used to treat diabetes
The methods indicated above can be used for managing diabetes but may not be very effective at some points. A doctor may therefore prescribe some forms of medication. The drugs usually prescribed by the doctors usually help in lowering blood sugar levels in different forms. The drugs can also be given alongside insulin if need be. Some of the most common types of medication which can be prescribed by the doctors include:
i. Biguanides – this is used to reduce the amount of glucose produced by the liver. It also helps muscle and fat cells and the liver to absorb more glucose from the bloodstream. This will have an overall effect in reducing the amount/level of blood sugar in the body.
ii. Thiazolidinediones – This type of drug helps the liver to absorb more blood sugar in the presence of insulin. Some drugs under this category like the rosiglitazone may increase the risk of heart complications. Therefore, a thorough medical examination and management is necessary whenever a person is using this type of medication.
iii. Sulfonylureas – This type of medication is usually taken orally via the mouth. It triggers the pancreas to produce more insulin which helps in regulating the sugar levels in the body.
iv. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors – these are used to decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive system so as to lower the amount of glucose taken in by the body after a meal.
The medications described above have different ways of regulating the amount of blood sugar in the system. More than one type of the medications above can be mixed together in order to achieve the best blood glucose control in the body system. Once a person’s weight reaches a controllable level, then their own body insulin and a careful choice of diet can help them in maintaining a good blood glucose level.
Medications that can be used to prevent complications
Patients suffering form diabetes have very high chances of developing other health complications like kidney diseases and heart diseases. There is need to use certain kinds of medicines alongside those ones used for treating diabetes so as to help in controlling such complications. Such medications include the use of an ACE inhibitor or ARB.
MEDICATIONS TO PREVENT COMPLICATIONS
Since those with diabetes have a much higher chance of developing heart disease, kidney disease, and other medical problems, they may need to take certain medicines to treat these problems or prevent them from happening. Such kinds of drugs will help control the level of blood glucose and at the same time help in controlling the complications which may result from diabetes.
Diabetic patients are likely to develop foot problems as diabetes usually damage nerves. This makes a person not feel any pain incase of an injury. Diabetes also reduces the body immune system. Whenever an injury occurs to the body, it will be hard for the body’s immune system to fight for its recovery. Therefore it is very necessary for the patients to ensure that they exercise proper foot care so as to prevent the occurrence of such injuries which may later on lead to the foot being amputated.