Autism is a medical condition that is normally diagnosed in children and young people. Autism normally causes the children to be slow in many of the basic necessary skills. The children are thus not able to communicate with their fellow friends. The causes of this disorder are somewhat not clear. The aim of this research is to ascertain the probable causes of autism and the recognition, referral and diagnosis of the young people and children on the autism spectrum. Lots of studies have been conducted though none of the research done has been able to identify the exact causes of autism disorder.
Several populations at increased risk of ASD that can be identified in early childhood: children with early signs of autism or developmental delays identified through population screening, children at increased risk of autism due to specific medical diagnoses or genetic anomalies, and the main focus of this paper, infants with an older sibling with ASD.
The required sample size for these studies will depend on the specific research question posed. A few issues are considered for illustration. First, if one defines the outcome of interest more broadly (e.g., language delay)
According to Allan (1993), children with ASD ascertained through an affected sibling may differ from other children with ASD. For example, differences in genetic factors, that is, genes that lead to higher recurrence rates, may influence the clinical expression of autism.
Discussion and recommendations
Clinicians are obliged to refer children for treatment when they believe it is clinically necessary for facilitating the child’s development as well as providing support to the parents. Developmental services have a responsibility to offer interventions targeting children’s specific needs
Allen, M. C. (1993). The high-risk infant. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 40, 479–490.
De Giacomo, A., Fombonne, E. (1998). Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 131–136.