- Definition of Utilitarianism and an example from the case study
Utilitarianism is the set ethics that includes actions that maximizes the society wellness and reduces problems (Sen, Bernard & Bernard 13). A good example in the case study is the elimination of plastic bags where many countries untake a firm stand against the use of the plastic bags and they impose high tax on them, thereby giving protection to the whole country.
- Trade-off between using plastic bag and not using them as in the case study
The use of plastic bag comes with various negative cost, the environment pollution is the main factor to considered, the clogging of sewer lines, littering roadsides, and landfills and being ingested by animals. The bags cannot fully decompose, as they are not biodegradable. This means that they continue polluting the environment. Not using plastic bags means less pollution as paper bags used as alternatives are easily decomposed and this will mean a cleaner environment.
- Solution to the problems caused by the use of plastic bags.
The reason plastic bags have become a problem is that they have increased to a level that they have become hazardous to the environment. The best way to protect the country for all is by reducing the use of plastic bags. People use plastic bags because they are cheap; the governments have to increase taxes on the plastic bags to make them very expensive such that people seek for cheaper alternatives. Regulation alone such as banning of plastics is not the ultimate solution, sensitizing the citizens on the dangers of plastics is also a good way forward.
- Effects on regulation
- Benefit from regulation
Government regulation has a significant positive effect in decreasing the usage of plastic bags. The ban on using plastic bags in china in 2008 was successful in ensuring that the use of the plastic bags drops by 66% by reducing demand by 40 million bags saving 1.6 billion ton of petroleum. Regulation Utilitarianism of production means less supply and thus people seek for alternatives to plastic bags such as paper and other reusable bags.
- Problem from regulation
The problem from control of plastic bags is that the market for the plastic bags will reduce. This means that organizations that produce the plastic bags will get losses and the fact the control causes the price of the bag to increase means that the shoppers will have to pay more for the bags before they can get alternatives bags.
Deontology refers to duty- based ethics on the actions that individuals do the actions are justifiable if they result to good (Broome 269). Deontology, therefore, advocates for collective good of the actions done. If the consequences are good for all, then the actions are justifiable. The increased use of plastic bags is not justifiable as they have a negative effect on the environment since they are not decomposable and thus should be stopped.
- How new plastic shopping bags rules Government regulations.
The control of plastic bags making creates new duties and to ensure that roles in the country; these duties include supervision tax officers, state supervisors to ensure that people comply with the banning of plastic bags control in place. The state also has to provide alternative that means that there will be roles in providing alternatives to plastic bags to be used by shoppers in the country.
- Virtue based Ethics
There is virtue-based ethics that compels the shopper to make a certain choice (Lahdesmaki 56). The choice of using plastic bags over not using them can be explained on the fact that the plastic bags are cheap and clean to use in carrying food stuffs from stores. The plastic bags also are convenient for multiple products and are easy to carry compared to paper bags.
- Video on Ethical challenge
- Doing business in the Middle East comes with ethical challenge; the Middle East companies are known of the lack of cooperate ethics in the treatment of their employees and when doing business. The main issue raised as a challenge to the management is the treatment of employees where the employees are given poor working environments. There is discrimination when it comes to employment and promotions in workplaces. The issue of corruption is high in the region and this has been worst amongst the worst in the world.
- The management needs to formulate more strict policies on corruption. This will discourage instances of corruption in doing business and better the image of the companies. The company should invest in ensuring better working conditions for the employees. This will increase their productivity that will result to overall increased performance of the business.
- The obstacle that the companies are likely to expect is dealing with the employees who are used to corrupt activities and poor working conditions it will take much time for them to change and conform to new policies. The other obstacle is the fact that corruption is widespread in many organizations and this is difficult to handle from one business point of view.
Broome, John. "Deontology and economics." Economics and Philosophy 8.2 (1992): 269-282.
Lahdesmaki, Merja. "When ethics matters–interpreting the ethical discourse of small nature-
based entrepreneurs." Journal of Business Ethics 61.1 (2005): 55-68.
Sen, Amartya, Bernard Williams, & Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, eds. Utilitarianism and
beyond. Cambridge University Press, 1982.