Alexanian, Nicole, Wiebke Bebermeier, Dirk Blaschta, and Arne Ramisch
2012 The Pyramid Complexes and the Ancient Landscape of Dahshur/Egypt. Journal for Ancient Studies (3):131-133.
This short article demonstrates the changes in sand levels since the time of the Old Kingdom (About 2600-2150 BCE). Geomorphic and sediment investigations conducted by the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) and the Institute of Geographical Sciences of the Free University of Berlin were able to determine the landscape during the Old Kingdom. Utilizing information from 80 sondages and several excavation trenches, researchers found that up to 7m of alluvial and aeolian deposits had occurred since the late Old Kingdom. Even further, researchers were able to determine by the late Old Kingdom, deposits were already forming and by the Ramesside Period (about 1300 BCE) deposits had accumulated to almost present day levels.
n.d. Akhet Khufu: archaeo-astronomical hints at a common project of the two main pyramids of Giza, Egypt. Dipartimento di Matematica. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Investigating the two main pyramids of the Giza Plateau through an interdisciplinary approach, Magli investigates whether or not the two pyramids could have been conceived as part of a common project. Utilizing astronomical alignments, cultural concepts of visible landscape, and topographical references, Magli openly discusses the potential of the Giza 1 and Giza 2 pyramids being built as a singular plan. However, Magli is hesitant to accept many of these claims promoted by people like Kate Spence (2000), who’s work he addresses in his discussion. Despite his investigation, Magli was unable to definitively determine whether or not they were built as a singular plan.
n.d. Reconstruction of ancient conceptual landscapes in the Nile Valley. Civil Architecture. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Conceptual landscapes were an important part of Egyptian life and are found to be represented in their architectural style through “directionality”, the orientation of buildings to the “cosmic order” essential to the power of the pharaoh. Highlighting sites like Abydos, Giza, Dahshur, and Amarna, Magli utilizes satellite imagery, local surveys, and web-based instruments Google Earth and Maps to show the connection between buildings’ directionality and the cosmic order that would have been obvious to the ancient Egyptians. Through his investigation, it was found that building in relation to the natural landscape and cosmic order essentially governed the architectural choices available to the Egyptians.
2010 Archaeoastronomy and Archeaeo-topography as tools in the search for a missing Egyptian Pyramid. PalArch’s Journal Of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology 7(5):1-9.
Despite ruling long enough (only two to four years) to have plans for and construction started, the second pharaoh of 6th Egyptian Dynasty Userkare’s pyramid has yet to be found. Utilizing methods based on archaeo-topography and archaeoastronomy such as geo-radar imaging and meridian alignments, Magli hopes to locate the possible building site and potentially securing a copy of the Pyramid Text. Originally hoping to locate the site through meridian alignments, it proved to be completely coincidental and even acknowledges that his theory of finding Userkare’s tomb is highly speculative.
n.d. Topography, astronomy and dynastic history in the alignments of the pyramid fields of the Old Kingdom. Civil Architecture. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Since the 19th century, it has been known that a main axes exists across the 4th Egyptian Dynasty at Giza with the south eastern corners aligning towards Heliopolis. A similar discovery was also found in Abu Sir, which led Magli to investigating various aspects of Egyptian culture like pyramid’s geometry and symbolic invisibility, in hopes of explaining the reason for such alignments. While admitting that it is impossible to determine a relationship across successive pharaohs, topographical evidence and survey lines at least indicate a level of topographical order.