Bullying in schools involves deliberate intimidation or attack that causes distress, fear or harm, and may be verbal, physical or psychological. This essay explores reference sources on the said topic to ascertain their credibility and relevance to the subject.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC (2011) details information on bullying, including definitions, examples and credible data to support the arguments presented. CDC writers and researchers are professionals in their areas. Reference to national statistics and other sources make this source trustworthy hence may be used in exploring the above mentioned topic. The facts explained are current, accurate, comprehensive, impartial and informative.
Mikulak (2013, par. 1) states that “it has long been acknowledged that bullying at a young age presents a problem for schools, parents and public policy makers alike”. The author quotes published research work and a psychological scientist to support her arguments on the adverse effects of bullying which, according to her, include poor social relationships, problems with sustaining a job and physical health issues. Another source, Minnesota Elementary School Principals’ Association (MESPA, 2013) argues that bullying affects not only the victim but also the bully themselves, school and bystanders. The arguments presented are thoughtful and evidently objective. The information is also current and detailed, giving the source credibility and relevance to the topic of concern.
NSPCC (2011) discusses forms, causes, signs and symptoms of bullying, as well as ways of preventing the vice in school. This source is a governmental body in which the authors are experts in their fields. The information presented is comprehensive, thoughtful, objective, and clear and is updated regularly. The foregoing is true of Staffordshire Learning Net (2013, pp.1-4), in which the author (s) explore bullying in details, including its causes and effects. The Staffordshire source quotes national statistics and credible studies to support the arguments, which are clearly objective, accurate and detailed. It is also up-to-date.
The National Institute of Health (NIH, 2012) explores how bullying in schools can affect the health and wellbeing of school children. The author (s) reference several national studies, statistics and experts to support their arguments. The information is factual, free of bias, accurate and evidential, making it trustworthy and relevant to the aforementioned topic. The article was last updated in 2012, which makes the information current and relevant.
According to Healthy Children (2013), bullying includes online harassment and intimidation (cyber bullying) and goes beyond physical harm. According to this source, bruises, headaches, stomachaches, sleep problems and absence from school are some of the effects of bullying in school. The authors(s) give evidence for their assertions by quoting national statistics, professionals in child development and psychology (such as Joseph Wright, M.D., M.P.H., FAAP, chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Violence Prevention Subcommittee), and published studies. Besides, the information contained in the article is detailed, impartial, accurate and informative, and it uses appropriate language. This makes the source trustworthy and relevant to the topic.
Violence Prevention Works (2011) discusses a ‘Bullying Circle’ which details people who participate in bullying. The author also explores the various effects of bullying for school-going children, observes, the students who bully others and the school at large. This source is trustworthy and reliable because the arguments are accurate, supported with statistics and reference to other credible studies. It is also detailed and objective. Its organizational affiliation augments its credibility.
In all, the sources referred to in this essay are trustworthy, accurate, detailed and objective. The authors support their arguments with credible evidence. The sources are thus relevant and useful in researching on the topic of bullying.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2011). Understanding Bullying: Fact Sheet.
Retrieved 20 October, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/Bullying_Factsheet-a.pdf
Healthy Children. (2013). Bullies Beat Down Self Esteem. Retrieved 20 October, 2013
MESPA. (n.d). The Impact of Bullying on Students and Schools. Retrieved 20 October, 2013
Mikulak, A. (2013). Far From Being Harmless, the Effects of Bullying Last Long Into
Adulthood. Retrieved 20 October, 2013 from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/far-from-being-harmless-the-effects-of-bullying-last-long-into-adulthood.html
National Institutes of Health. (2012). How Does Bullying Affect Health and Wellbeing?
Retrieved 20 October, 2013 from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/bullying/conditioninfo/Pages/health.aspx
NSPCC. (2011). Bullying. Retrieved 20 October, 2013 from
Staffordshire Learning Net. (2013). Bullying and Its Effects. Retrieved 20 October, 2013
Violence Prevention Works. (2013). How Bullying Affects Children. Retrieved 20 October,
2013 from http://www.violencepreventionworks.org/public/bullying_effects.page