In every society, the basic determinants of development are political system and economic position of that particular country. This is significantly shown by the way United States of America, Nigeria, and China organized and structured their political and government system in the 20th century. Moreover, political stability also dictates the speed with which economy of a country develops.
Economic and political system of Nigeria in the 20th Century
Economic system of Nigeria in the 20th century
At the attainment of independence in 1960, Nigeria was left relatively strong but with the undiversified economy. To remedy this, the state came up with proposals on how to increases economic growth and development (Blom-Hansen, Houlberg, and Serritzlew). The priority was given to the expansion of education and other social infrastructures such as hospitals. Education was expanded at all levels so as to reach many people hence helping to reduce illiteracy and acquire the right skills and labor force for economic development and growth.
Again road infrastructure and communication networks were constructed beyond what the colonizers left so at increase the speed by which good, services were moved to the market. The government also constructed hydroelectric dams for the generation of power to serve the newly built secondary industries and automobile assembly plants. The industries intern provided employment consequently causing rural- urban migration.
With the help of foreign countries, foreign oil companies were encouraged to partner with the government in the oil sector which became the mainstay of Nigeria's economy. The oil company provided the government with a lot of foreign exchanges earnings hence boosting development. However, due to high corruption level and misappropriation of resources by government officials productivity suddenly declined leading to poverty and suffering by the local people.
Political system of Nigeria in the 20th Century
The twentieth century was every hard time in Nigeria. It was the time for the struggle for independence. In 1922, the legislative council was formed. It comprised 30 official members, one nominated member by the government, 15 unofficial members representing the municipal areas of Lagos and Calabar. African had very few representatives in the council, and only male were to be nominated by the Council.
After the attainment of independence, Nigeria embarked on the formulation of the constitution in 1960 which followed by other drafting another constitution in 1999 with several amendments afterward. The Supreme Court served the society as justice. Again, Nigeria had a written constitution as the supreme law of the country. There was the separation of power with emphasizes put on judicial independence. In the year 1960 to 1966 the prime minister and his ministers sat in the legislature and formed the government.
The prime minister and their ministers helped in making laws while primers and their assistance also engaged in the making of laws in their regions. The president and state governors were not required to sit in the legislatures since they formed executives. The system of separation of power and Repugnancy doctrine was also adopted. However, corruption overran the country statesmen leading misallocation of resource hence poor and static economic development.
Economic and Political System of China
Economic System of China
Through westernization, China was able to build its industrial base. However, westernization was later outwitted with Chinas' humiliating war reparation payment that affected its growth. China government official engaged in power struggle thus made it difficult for economic development. In an effort to ensure that her people do not starve, it provided of relief food but people were not able to produce their food and this again discouraged economic growth.
Again, there was unbalanced growth that favored industrialization. A lot of resources were channeled to industrial sectors and living agricultural abandoned (Chen and Brown). Due to low agricultural production there was general lack of food consequently leading to a severe lack of food thus leading to starvation hence low economic growth.
Political system Chinas in the 20th century
China in the 20th Century was organized in the feudal system of government. The state was divided into feudal states. The states were independent and had their tax and legal system along with the unique currency. The head of the feudal known as the noble was to pay a regular visit to the overal ruler and also to provide him with soldiers in the time of war. This system of politics enables Zhou to expand its territories.
In addition, the feudal system included granting of land in the form of fiefs to the nobles. The nobles were not being paid salary but received tracks of land by from the king along with the people living there who paid part of their produce to the noble. The noble had to take the oath of loyalty and fidelity to the king so as to be given the power to a section of the land.
However, the feudalism in China led to inter conflicts between the nobles who were searching for power and large tracks of land to expand their territory. Consequently, the authority and power of the general king of Zhou decreased to appoint of the collapse of the political system.
Economic and political system of United States in the 20th Century
Economic System in USA the 20th Century
The American economy became mature in the 20th century with the introduction of railroad industry which increased the movements of goods and services from one region to another. With the developed railroad, there emerged corporations that brought with it the business barons replacing the technocrats hence improve the economy of the state.
Moreover, the revolution of technology in the year 1980s and 1990s led to the emergence of a new entrepreneurial culture that brought the age of tycoons (Piazza). The technology increased the speed with which communication could be conveyed from one place to another, and it also resulted in the increased production of little energy involved and time.
Besides that, American agriculture and rural life underwent a transformation in the 20th century. Initially, the agriculture was labor intensive with large number of small and segmented farms in the rural area where most population occupied. However with development in technology and development of rural infrastructure agriculture was mechanized leading to the increased output. Again, agriculture provided employment to the rural population hence increasing the country's economy.
Political system of USA in the 20th Century
USA is known for its federal system of government of the republic of fifty states. Her government was composed of legislative executives and judicial. The judicial power was controlled by the Constitution in the Congress. In federalism, power was shared between the federal government and the state governments. The powers of federal government were governed by the constitution. More so, the checks and balances ideas among the powers and responsibilities of the three branches of American government provided the pillar of her state constitution.
Moreover, the Congress or the legislative branch of federal government comprised of representatives and senate. The Congress was tasked with the obligation of levying and collection of tax. It also performed money regulation and its value. The Congress is required to provide punishment for counterfeiting thus it is charged with setting up federal courts.
Furthermore, the executive arm of the government has it power vested in the president. It gave the president the obligation to ensure that the law is properly executed. Again president can sign laws passed by Congress into laws or veto the law thus preventing it from become a law (Piazza). The executive is also made up of vice president and the cabinets. In the event of the death of the president, the vice-president becomes the president as per the requirements of the law. The cabinets are required to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. Lastly, the judicial system was tasked with the role of the application of law and serving the society with justice.
Comparisons of the USA, Nigeria and China Economic and Political System and how they influenced Economic Growth
Under the Zhou, the feudal system of government, power was given to the nobles by the king who in return supplies the king with soldiers. This system provided no checks on the nobles hence it led to the power struggle in the country hence the collapse. Similarly, after independence the Nigerians' government engaged in corruptions and misapplication of resources and struggle for power consequently leading to slow economic growth.
In the America, the states' power was structured into different organs of the government who were regularly checked. Each organ of the government was assigned a role to play in the society thus providing a good environment for economic growth in the state. In contrary to Nigeria and China the where power was given to people without a check hence they encouraged misuse of power and corruption thus discouraging economic growth.
It is evidently true that the political system is an important vehicle for achieving economic development in the society. The more organized and stable the political system is the more the economy of that particular society is likely to grow at a faster rate. For instance, UAS economy is wheeled by it political stability as compared to Nigeria and China in the 20th century.
Blom-Hansen, Jens, Kurt Houlberg, and SÃ¸ren Serritzlew. 'Size, Democracy, And The Economic Costs Of Running The Political System'. American Journal of Political Science 58.4 (2014): 790-803. Web.
Chen, Kai, and Colin Brown. 'Addressing Shortcomings In The Household Responsibility System'. China Economic Review 12.4 (2001): 280-292. Web.
Piazza, J. A. 'The Determinants Of Domestic Right-Wing Terrorism In The USA: Economic Grievance, Societal Change And Political Resentment'. Conflict Management and Peace Science (2015): n. pag. Web.