1. “ Wa”: what is “wa”? Briefly define the term and how it is (has been) used/practiced in Japan?
Wa is group harmony in Japanese culture. This harmony implies both conformity within a social group and a peaceful group unity. This group mindset implies preference for continuing harmony in a community setting over any personal focus. This concept of Wa derives from Japanese sense of family values. Within the family, any member exhibiting behavior breaking the idea of the harmonious nature of Wa in the pursuit of furthering his or her own interests becomes the subject of strict reprimand from the family, a superior, or even a peer or colleague. Therefore, Japan's cultural distinction as hierarchical social structures exists for the primary purpose of the continuation of Wa. This includes preservation of the community harmony over any overt public disagreement with the power structure. Examples of Wa in the Japanese workplace include the fact workers typically have a job for life. Groups experience bonuses and rewards more typically in the workplace than the individual. The idea of Wa is group unity.
2. Confucius: Who is “ Confucius”? What is the value he advocated? Explain.
Confucius was one of the most famous philosophers that came from China that lived during the Zhou Dynasty. During his time as a government official, he saw a lot of turmoil. Therefore, he came up with five virtues based on respect, honesty, kindness, strong family bonds, and education. The first virtue is Li, stands for etiquette, manners, and gravity. The second virtue is Ren, stands for kindness to everyone. The third virtue is Xin, stands for truthfulness, sincerity, and faithfulness. The fourth virtue is Yi, stands for honesty and generosity of the soul. The fifth virtue is Xiao, stands for strong family values.
3. What is “ meiwaku? Define the term and how it is an opposite of “ren”?
Meiwaku is anything that could cause you or someone else trouble or shame. In other words, it means that you are being a nuisance in public in the Japanese culture. The main reason that ren is the opposite of meiwaku is because ren means that a person is trying to be a better person unlike a meiwaku who is trying to be a trouble maker. A ren individual has a lot of respect for other people while the meiwaku has no respect for anyone.
4. “Confucian sphere”: what is the “Confucian sphere”? What does it entail, and what is the significance?
Confucian sphere is known as the heart of China. It is has a lot of culture in it because of the religious makeup of people who live in this area. This remains a part of China where the majority of the people believe in the teachings of Confucius. Therefore, they live their daily lives as he would want them to.
5. “McDonaldization”: What is “Mcdonaldization”? Explain its global-local implications.
McDonaldization is when a culture is going to possess some of the same characteristics as a fast food restaurant. There are four main components of McDonaldization. The first component is efficiency, how you are able to accomplish a task. The second component is calculability, the objective should be more about sales rather than taste. The third component is predictability, this is the standardized and uniform services. The fourth component is control, the standardized and uniform employees that are replaced by technology.
6. Every society embraces a set of values and develops a series of socialization process to sustain, if not perpetuate these values. Discuss the main values embraced by the society from the book, Confucius Lives next door, and illustrate the socialization processes that enforce these values. Support your arguments with three specific examples from the book.
The Asian values that are taught in this book are hard work, honesty, thrift, and a commitment to education. Basically, they are the ethical values that Confucius was taught when he was a child. Socialization helps the singular face the substances of life, through the energy about their society practices. The organizations of socialization are the social establishments that pass onto the individuals these standards, qualities, convictions, and disposition. There are numerous offices of socialization, which are developmental: expectant, resocialization, turn around, essential, and optional socialization.
On the other hand, the fundamental organizations are those in regards to essential socialization, which is the methodology where individuals study mentality, qualities, and activities suitable to people as parts of a specific society. Auxiliary socialization organizations are vital as well. These organizations are answerable for the techniques in where people study proper conducts as parts of a littler aggregation inside the bigger social order.
Religion is an alternate major organization of socialization. Therefore, it epitomizes the ethical standards of social order. In this appreciation, religion has its own set of standards, qualities, and destinations that manage the behavior of its parts.
7. Through the Reid family’s experiences, we are led to witness a cultural exchange between the East and West( simply put ). Reid often makes comparisons between his own culture and the culture of his host country. According to Reid, what are the similarities and differences between these two cultures regarding Family, Education and Crime? What do these differences tell us about these two cultures? (Again, support your arguments with specific examples).
The similarities between the Reid family and the Eastern Culture of Japan are the love of family. However, Reid makes it clear that his family is far safer in Japan than in the United States. His example of his daughters taking a train to Tokyo Disney in Japan would never happen in the U.S. In the book, he makes it clear about the admiration he has for the lack of crime against the public in Japan as he writes, about humans having a right to live without fear like walking down the street or jogging in a park at night. Leaving personal items like a mountain bike or car outside the house with the assurance it remains there should be every human right but Reid makes it clear it is in Japan these things happen and not the U.S.
8. “Going Global” Globalization is defined as “ a multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch, and intensify worldwide social interdependencies and exchanges while at the same time fostering in people a growing awareness of deepening connections between the local and the distant”(Manfred B. Steger). Please illustrate the practice of globalization, specifically, what kind of “exchanges” and “connection between the local and the distant” do we witness through the readings? (Use specific examples to support your statement).
Specialists in the rich nations were made a guarantee to that they would at last profit from globalization. Under the new corporate standards of the globalization period, riches and remunerates were to "regularly" trickle down to every living soul in an organization. Rather, specialists uncover that their nations develop wealthier, as do organizations and executives, yet common working individuals develop poorer.
The new and extremely later Anglo- American business universality directs the chase for benefit without respect for social expense or commitment. At the same time as of late as the 1950s in the United States, the "stakeholder" corporate model was usually acknowledged all hands on deck schools and in practice. It holds that while the partnership exists to make benefits, it is additionally answerable for furnishing secure occupations and only compensation for its representatives, and for propelling the monetary hobbies of the country and "the benefit of social order." It plainly is not an outdated or obviously wasteful model, since it remains generally acknowledged in Japan. It is, for instance, the corporate model emulated by the Toyota company, the best vehicles producer on the planet. At this minute, the once universally prevailing American car industry is nearing cave in (and endeavoring to cast off the last vestige of its own past acknowledgement of social authority, its contractual health- mind commitments).
9. Whenever there is cultural exchange, there is tension, confusion, and conflict. What cultural conflict and confusion (or cultural shock or misunderstandings) were there, as described by Reid? How do cultural stereotypes contribute to this tension and criticism of Asians toward the United States?
Reid seems to see cultural conflict and confusion in his Japanese experience lay in the fact the Japanese are clearly a group-oriented society whereas the American society (Western society) espouses the rights of the individual and individualism. Japan remains a high-pressure society within the family structure, their educational system, their society as a whole. While there exists, according to Reid, ethical and moral similarities between America and Asian societies or Judeo-Christian Western tradition and the Eastern Confucian mores, there nonetheless the cultural tensions arise from Asian autocratic tendencies. The main difference in the West's Judeo-Christian precepts and Confucian lay in how behavior affects an afterlife. There are no spiritual affairs involved in Confucian belief. It is a philosophy and not a religion. The good behavior of the Confucian follower is a goal in and of itself. Unlike the West, the Asian masses under Confucian precepts remain instructed as a society of the virtue of group conformity. With each person performing his designated role the hierarchical society works.
Confucian Question Sheet Book Review Example
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1. “ Wa”: what is “wa”? Briefly define the term and how it is (has been) used/practiced in Japan?
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