The switch to steam power led to the movement of factories away from the big cities, like London. Instead, locations close to water –out of which steam power is generated- and coal fields, another necessary ingredient for steam power, were preferred. Furthermore, as trade grew dramatically, locations close to markets and trade routes were highly favored.
Summarize Karl Marx's arguments against capitalism.
Karl Marx considered capitalism a deeply inhumane system. It increased the gap between rich and poor helping a very small percentage of the population become extremely rich while leaving the masses in poverty. The upper classes, or bourgeoisie, controlled the production and the workers, the proletariat, were removed from the products they created by not being able to consume them. Payment for the workers was small and unfair as they did not receive the money they deserved for the value they produced.
Created in 1870 after the collapse of the Second Empire that followed the catastrophic –for the French- Franco-Prussian war, the Third Republic led France to the 20th century. Two of the reforms made during the Third Republic were:
1. The laws of 1875 that determined the constitution of the Republic placing the President of the Republic at the head of the state and creating a two chamber parliamentary force.
2. The separation of Church and State by law in 1905.
What happened on the day that became known in Russian history as Bloody Sunday?
On January 22 1905, a group of workers with their families marched peacefully towards the Winter Palace of St Petersburg, aiming to deliver a petition to the Russian Tsar. Unprovoked and with no apparent reason as the workers were unarmed and the Tsar not in town, the imperial troops fired against the protesters leading to a massacre that shook the Tsarist regime, was followed by social unrest and is today considered one of the events that led to the Communist Revolution of 1917.
How did the 1911 Revolution in China change China's governance?
It led to the abdication of the last Emperor of the Manchu dynasty in 1912 and the creation of a Republic.
How did nationalism and political competition contribute to the rise of the new imperialism?
Nationalism presupposes a common sense of identity and a unity of a group of people which in the 19th century was under a common nation. This unity helped shape the European states, but at the same time led to the rise of a sense of superiority among them. This in its turn gave rise to the new imperialism as European states strongly believed in their superior right to control the less developed world. At the same time, it led political competition among European states each of which struggled to extend its power to as many countries outside the continent as possible.
How did imperialism and militarism lead Europe to the brink of war in 1914?
For the greatest part of the 19th century the great powers of Europe have been expanding their territories by colonizing the rest of the world. This was based on a belief on their superiority which as the time passed and the territories outside Europe to be conquered diminished had destructive consequences. At home, they used the new industrial technologies to build massive defensive armies and engaging in alliances that initially aimed at maintaining peace. At the same time, however, they ignored problems very close to them, like those faced by the Ottoman Empire and also the fact that the polarized environment created by their alliances and military power favored the involvement of all states in a conflict.
List three causes of the 1929 stock market crash.
1. The unequal distribution of wealth which created on one hand great masses of lower working classes and on the other hand a small but incredibly rich and irresponsible elite.
2. The rise in dept during the 1920’s as people –mainly farmers- took loans which were subsequently unable to pay back.
3. An inadequate and unprepared banking system both in the US and in Europe.
What was the Great Purge?
The Great Purge refers to a series of persecutions, puppet trials and murders during the 1930’s in Russia. These were ordered by Joseph Stalin and aimed at eradicating all his political and ideological opponents as well as any potential opponents.
What factors contributed to Hitler's rise to the most powerful post in the German government?
Among the factors that contributed to the rise of Hitler in Germany were: the severe problems the German economy faced as a result of the defeat in World War I in 1918 and the Great Depression that followed the market crash of 1929; the failure of the Weimar government to stabilize the economy and solve the problems; the high unemployment and insecurity among the middle classes which led to further discontent; the national humiliation many Germans felt after the humiliating terms of the treaty of Versailles.