Part A: 1: Stay and do nothing
In my opinion I will adopt this attitude in a situation where I either don’t have any personal interest or the responsibility of the situation is upon someone else. This attitude best suits these two situations due to the reasons that we should not try to get involved in some situation for changing anything where we don’t have any interest as we can get into trouble from any negative outcome of the involvement. Similar is the case when someone else is responsible for the outcomes of any approach in a situation.
An example of such situation include a workplace where a client is involved in an argument with the sales staff. In this situation I don’t have any concern with the situation and I have no benefits or losses associated with the situation as I do not work in the sales department. In such situations the best way is to stay in the situation and do nothing in order to keep myself out of it as the sales staff is more trained to deal with the situation and satisfy or counter argue with the client.
2: Vote with your feet
A situation in which there is either some loss of staying in the situation or there is benefit of moving to some other situation then the best way of reacting in such situation will be foot voting which is to move away from the existing situation to the other one .
An example of such situation is if people around me start gossiping and chatting while avoiding to work in the workplace then I choose to leave their company and get out of the situation by either moving myself away from them or start my own work and concentrate on my professional tasks.
3: Change your attitude about your fellow workers
Changing attitude about fellow worker is to be adopted in only one situation that is when we see that a fellow worker is extremely rigid and non-flexible in his views. In this case the best way is to change my own attitude in order to avoid any conflict. So if a fellow worker seems to be not convincing through arguments then it is better to change my own attitude toward him/her.
An example of such situation is when a fellow worker wants to leave the organization while thinking that he is not much appreciated in the organization and is not getting enough reward for his/her performance even if he/she is getting that more than what the other organizations are offering to their employees. In such situation if I keep trying to convince the fellow worker to stick with the job while he is not getting convinced then the better way for me is to change my own attitude about him/her.
4: Change your behavior
Changing behavior can be adopted in many situations including a situation in which I perceive that my specific behavior in workplace is not helping me to get the desired results. This case will be more applicable where I have to get something done from my subordinate and he/she is not coming up with the desired results .
An example of such a situation is if a subordinate is not coming up to the task due to my lenient behavior while getting him/her to carry out the task. This situation needs to be analyzed and if the employee is found taking advantage of my leniency then he/she should be directed to carry out the task in stricter manner which involves changing my lenient behavior.
1. Innovation and risk taking
Risk taking always comes with innovation as innovation is basically doing new things through creativity. Taking risk must be through specific calculations which is known as calculated risk otherwise it will simply bring undesired results for the organization. In a calculated risk there are more chances of getting the desired results. Similarly in case of innovation, if the person is pioneer of the idea which is through creating the concept by himself then he is a part of the risk the organization is taking and if that innovative idea brings good results through giving the desired outcome then that employee will get good reputation in the eyes of the management. Risk taking and innovation go hand in hand in an organizational culture. The extent of risk an organization is willing to take determines the extent of innovation the organization may experiment .
2. Attention to detail
Giving attention to the little details in depth in an organization ensures minimal risk through detailed calculations. An organizational culture which has practice of giving great in depth attention through analysis of the situations and future strategies is an effective organization in planning in both long and short terms. Giving attention to details ensures inclusion of even little details which may have effects in longer run of the organization. It is a universal fact that the more importance an organization gives to the details the more the organization will head towards innovation with least associated risk.
3. Outcome orientation
The focus of an organization to the results of the tasks is known as the outcome orientation of the organization. Many companies give more focus towards the outcome instead of the processes. The focus towards the outcome determines the basic way of working in an organization. In many cases the processes are more important than the outcome like in case of food manufacturers which require healthy and hygienic environment to avoid getting sealed by food inspectors.
4. People orientation
The most significant orientation of an organization is the people orientation. The reason of giving this characteristic of an organization due importance is that this gives the employees more motivation and in return helps the organization to retain them. Creating a good environment for employees is the best example of an employee orientation by an organization. There are some organizations which are particularly popular for their best work environment and some other organizations still continue to have the feudal environment for their employees.
5. Team orientation
A harmoniously working team ensures smooth working of an organization. Individuals working at their own without coordinating among themselves as team within an organization results in lower efficiencies. It is better to form teams with diversified sills to ensure better team orientation and effectiveness by an organization.
Most of the companies usually set up specific levels of aggressiveness towards their prospective markets for their marketing position according to the product and services level they are offering. Several companies use extreme market domination strategies to capture maximum market share.
A continuous improvement process ensures a company’s good future although it looks opposite to the stability of the company. A stable company may have good improvement going on without affecting its stability. It seems contrary to the fact that a changing organization may be exposed to various risks but in reality a stagnant organization is exposed to more threats.
The perceiver's emotions, motives, and experience can influence his/her perceptions. Some characteristics of a perceiver can influence perception. While a perceiver looks at some target and tries to interpret that he/she has the understanding. This interpretation can be heavily affected by personal traits of each individual perceiver which may include following:-
- Experience: The most significant and critical influential characteristic of a perceiver on his/her perception is the experience. The perceiver’s past experiences lead him/her to develop specific expectations towards a situation and the effects of these experiences on the perception. In organizations the differences in experiences create diversity in workplace but may result in adverse results in few cases.
- Motivational State: The differences in the needs of perceivers at a specific moment and their motivational state may also be the source of problems within organizations as their motivational states affect their interpretation and perception of events.
- Emotional State: The Emotional state of the perceiver refers to some specific emotions which he/she feels at the given time. The emotions like happiness, anger, and fear of a perceiver can affect his/her perceptions. In few cases the perceiver employs special perceptual defense that occurs when his/her perceptual system defend him/her against some unpleasant emotions. This may be stated simply that the perceiver may have a tendency to see that he/she wishes to see.
Perceptions are influenced by target's ambiguity and social status. Lacking of information or ambiguity about the target may lead to greater need of interpretation. Characteristics in a target which is being perceived can disturb that is perceived. The physical appearance plays a critical role in the perception. Extremely un-attractive or attractive individuals get noticed within a group easily than other ordinary looking people in the same group. Size, sound, movement and many other such attributes related to the target shape perceiver’s perception greatly. The communication with target especially the verbal communication affects the perception as well. The nonverbal communication in between the target and perceiver brings great information to the perceiver about target. In most of the cases, a perceiver decodes the eye contact, body movements, facial expressions, and even body posture in order to develop impression and understanding about the target.
Another big influencer of the perception is the situation as it adds further information for the perceiver about a target. A situation having interaction of a target with its perceiver, greatly influences the impression of target on the perceiver. The social perception is also greatly affected by the situations. There may be few situations which provide good cues to bring appropriate behavior while in other situations this may not be the case. An individual perceiver’s behavior can be considered for by a situation while neglecting individual’s disposition.
Extraversion is known as the habit or state of being primarily concerned with obtaining satisfaction from outside one’s self. Extraverts have a tendency to enjoy interactions with others and they tend to be assertive, talkative, enthusiastic, and gregarious. The extravert people take part in events that include large gatherings like community activities, parties, public demonstrations, business meetings and political gatherings. Politics, sales, teaching, brokering and managing are favorable fields for extraverts. The extraverts are generally the kind of people who enjoy spending time with others and feel less rewarding to spend time alone. The extraverts seem to be significantly energized around people and get bored when they are alone. The perception of extravert people is mostly influenced by the perceiver i.e. by themselves .
Agreeableness is a trait establishing itself within individuals’ behavioral characteristics which are perceived to be kind, warm, cooperative, sympathetic and considerate. Agreeableness reflects individual differences between social harmony and cooperation. Thos people who fall in this category have tendency to believe that other people are mostly descent, trustworthy and honest. The perception of this kind of people is mostly affected by the situation.
Conscientiousness is a state of thoroughness, carefulness, and vigilance. It implies the desire of doing a task in true essence. Conscientiousness is considered as efficient, neat, organized, and systematic. Conscientiousness includes various elements such as self-discipline, thoroughness, carefulness, self-organization, deliberation, and achievement need. It can be considered a major aspect of one’s personality. A conscientious individual is usually hard working. This kind of people may become workaholics, compulsive and perfectionist in some situations. They are highly goal oriented and are driven by success. The perception of this kind of people is influenced by themselves i.e. the perceiver.
4: Emotional stability
The emotionally stable people have tendency to stay calm and are less likely found tense and rattled. These people are quite low in terms of negative emotions as well as positive emotions. While on the other hand the emotionally unstable people tend to be extremely affected by the emotions both negative and positive. The emotionally stable people tend to remain uninfluenced by the situation and target however the emotionally unstable people are heavily influenced by both of them and even by themselves as well i.e. the perceiver .
5: Openness to experience
This trait involves the use of active imagination, attentiveness, aesthetic sensitivity, and acceptance of inner feelings. The people holding this trait are intellect curious. These people have tendency to have more liberal views politically and socially. This kind of people tend to be influenced by the target and perceive the target with their open mind regardless of their past experiences.
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