1.1 Background Information
Essentially, the use of biotechnology has been one of the most harnessed and embraced concepts in the modern world. The developers of this form of technology aim to provide solutions to the traditional problems that have been in existence due to little or lack of due understanding concerning the structure and nature of various biological components of animals and plants. As such, research and development has worked to explore these structures and determine how they can be used for the benefit of humans all around the world. In that light, biotechnology has therefore been applied in various sectors of the economy, including health, agriculture, defense, and entrepreneurship.
Now, of importance, the use of biotechnology in the pursuit to develop the agricultural sector has been far too evident. In essence, the world has been trying to solve the critical issue of food security. Indeed, the prevalence of food insecurity has been occasioned by the rapid increase of the population across the world. Whereas biotechnology in agriculture has been beneficial to the world bearing in mind the importance of having more resistance crops and ones that use less time to mature, it poses critical issues that would be considered as being the consequences inherent to the method. As such, this provides a gap that should be addressed around the world, yet with particular emphasis on some of the regions which may be affected more than others on the face of these gaps in science.
1.2 Problem Statement
As stated in section 1.1, the application of biotechnology in the contemporary society has critical benefits just as there are fundamentally notable challenges and consequences that should be addressed. In particular, the developing countries are vulnerable to these challenges as raised by the use of biotechnology. One of those challenges includes the safety standards applied in the process of handling these developments. In essence, it cannot be disputed that the development of biotechnological approaches were mostly discovered by the developed countries. As such, the application of such technologies in the developed countries would be safer since they understand the procedures of application. In addition to this, the farmers are well aware of the inherent issues that may arise in the process. On the contrary, the developing countries are more vulnerable to ignorance, deficiency in understanding, and negligence in application. In particular, these vulnerabilities are even more adverse in regard to the agricultural sector. As such, this calls for solid and evidence based regulations which arrest the lack of safety in these countries while using biotechnology. As such, the paper focuses on the use of evidence-based research in the pursuit to formulate biotechnology-related regulations to avoid economic negative effects such a overspending on healthcare.
Results and Analysis
In order to prevent economic backlash caused by the mishandling of biotechnology such as increased health spending, there are various aspects that should be incorporated in the regulation framework of the developing countries. In this case, Kinderlerer conducted a research on some of these aspects that should be taken into consideration. First, the country should set up a reliable system which notifies the authorities of the intentions and plans to introduce biotechnological modifications. This system should be of broad scope such that it does not only focus on the people who seek to conduct the modifications, but also the ones who may seek to import the biotechnological products (Kinderlerer 11).
Secondly, the system should ensure that the regulations are stipulated in such a manner that they are different for different users. For example, people who may seek to import these products in order to use them as food may be treated differently from those who have intentions to actually grow the organism within the country. This is based on the fact that the growing process may lead to release of products in the environment thus increasing environmental cleansing expenditure. Thirdly, it is important for the system to be fashioned in such a manner that it evaluates the applications to ensure that all information is provided. This should be coupled with field-based analysis of the situation to ensure that what is provided in the application document is actually reflective of the actual situation on the ground.
In addition, the government should have two critical installations when it comes to risk management frameworks within its economic regulations. The first option would consider making a conventional risk management framework to which the applicant should showcase how it has been fulfilled. Alternatively, the government may require the applicant to provide a risk management analysis showing how the shortcomings would be handled. This is an indication that risk management plan, regardless of the person that designs it, should be solid, efficient, realistic, logical and relevant to the inherent threats.
Importantly, also, the regulative framework should not be dictatorial in nature both in implementation and formulation. In other words, it should be inclusive to the effect that all stakeholders have a chance to contribute to its formulation. Otherwise, formulating regulations that does not have acceptance would lead to a situation where the persons expected to introduce some of the innovative biotechnologies in the developing countries become discouraged. Actually, the formulation process should make changes on the regulative frameworks in accordance to the comments and suggestions provided by the different stakeholders in the country. Lastly, the regulatory framework must stipulate some of the ways in which the communications on the requirements are communicated to the general public to ensure that the needs are transparent.
Now, the issue of formulating policies in regard to biotechnology raises the question of the factors that should be considered when making the frameworks. One of the core concerns in this, is as to whether the regulations should be based on the process of biotechnological development or the fundamentally vital concern as to whether the developed products are novel or not. In this case, research shows that the regulations should be based on the question of novelty rather than the process (Report 1: Towards an evidence-based regulatory system for GMOs 3). While expounding on this, the report indicates that the regulations should be centred on the question of whether the developments are harmful or not. In addition to this, research also indicates that whereas these risk assessment may be done in the right manner, the question of whether the consumers are comfortable using them or not is based on communication (World Health Organization 5). As such, the organization advocates that the developing countries must come up with effective ways of communicating to the public in regard to the efficiency and accuracy of the risk assessment. Besides, it should also ensure that the public has basic scientific understanding on the matter at hand. This will ensure that the funds put on the development of these crops does not go to waste due to a situation in which the public is seeking to run away from the GMOs and other biotechnological developments especially in the third-world countries.
Essentially, it is evident that the use of biotechnology has brought fundamental benefits to the entire world including the developing world. However, there are also inherent problems that may have an impact on the extent to which the implementations are effective and efficient. Importantly, it has been noted that some of these challenges actually have a negative impact on the economies of different countries. In this case, therefore, it has become crucial to explore some of these problems and determine whether they can be solved and hot go about it.
"Report 1: Towards an Evidence-based Regulatory System for GMOs." Advisory Committe on Releases to the Environment (n.d.): 1-13. Web. <https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/239839/an-evidence-based-regulatory-system-for-gmos.pdf>.
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Kinderlerer, Julian. "Regulation of Biotechnology: Needs and Burdens for Developing Countries." Sheffield Institute of Biotechnological Law & Ethics (2002): 1-11. Web. <http://www.unep.org/biosafety/Documents/BTregulationJK.pdf>.
Organization, World Health. "Modern Food Biotechnology, Human Health and Development: An Evidence-based Study." Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases (2005): 1-85. Web. <http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/biotech_en.pdf>.
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Smyth, Stuart, and Peter Wb Phillips. "Risk, Regulation, and Biotechnology: The Case of GM Crops." Gmcrops GM Crops & Food 5.3 (2014): n. pag. Web. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/21645698.2014.945880