The child’s trust in people is formed in the early stages of development. The factors that influence the impact of the child’s ambitions, such as taking the initiative and being active in the world, feeling confident were discussed. In studies reviewed, researchers wanted to determine the impact of relationship with parents and educators during the early stages of development. Research methods included questionnaires, surveys and statistical data. It was found that the relationship between a child and significant adults is very important to shaping the child’s personality, trust and love for her surroundings.
Keywords: childhood, parents, behavior, development, early stage.
Being a parent is an extremely responsible task. Realization of the weight of this role directs children’s future accordingly. Children come to this world tiny and fragile and seek to discover it. The first years of life are the basis for their future development and adult personality traits. Parents cannot instruct and punish based on their intuition only, they must look for advice from parentig professionals in order to form their children so as to become well-rounded individuals. Parents use power and time and they shape the fate and future adulthood of the child. The main issue here is the impact of educators during the early critical years of the child’s life.
Children who are treated properly and receive enough love and attention can be raised as wholesome citizens and human beings. The first developmental stages are particularly important. At this time, it is extremely important to have economic, social and educational support.
Criteria of the Studies
Ten recent empirical studies included experiments in Africa, Asia and America. They are all aimed at very young children; however, some of them included the consequences faced by the adults and the involvement of teachers and parents. Four of the studies have emphasized the creative approach in a child’s education (Diamond, 2014; Guo, 2015; Ramirez, Martín-Domínguez, Orgaz, & Canedo, 2015; Yildirim, 2010), other two studies showed the role of the modern technologies usage in children education (Blackwell Lauricella & Wartella, 2014; Cohrssen, Church & Tayler, 2014; Justice, Kaderavek & Dynia, 2015). Furthermore, there are studies on child growth in unusual environments and its consequences (Fotso et al., 2012; Podesta, 2014; Yazejian, Bryant, Freel & Burchinal, 2015). The criteria for methods used were teachers’ interviews, self-evidence and mood and feelings questionnaires.
Grouping organization. Nevertheless, for a profound discussion on the impact of the educators’ influence during early years, the studies were grouped by topics of the spheres. These include the definition of early years, the impact on the child’s learning, specified recent researches, evolving issues as the children grow up, the role of technologies and support in it.
First Group of Studies
Early years. According to the recent studies “early age” is the period in the person’s life when the main features of characters are formatted and the level of vulnerability is so high that the circumstances can shape this person’s ambitions, relationships and future (Podesta, 2014). The early age encompasses first years of meeting the world, the experiences one faces and the transition to the conscious perception of the world and people around.
The conditions and relations child has at an early age have developed several basic factors that reflect the issue. That is why, insight on parent’s methods and techniques hidden and exposed are important for formation of the self-contained independent human being. More closely, the age when a child is influenced by the environment the most ranges from a day to 5-7 years old.
Second Groups of Studies
Impacts on child’s learning. The interest and encouragement of young person’s learning relies on a variety of factors: his or her social status, level of family’s income, access to the modern technologies, health abilities and, of course, level of attention and the knowledge of parents of close-ones about the importance of focusing on the broad development of a child at an early age. Yazejian, et al. (2015) argued that at-home and educational institutions are the primary factors for developmental emergence. What matters is the quality and quantity of communication. Moreover, the more care a child receives, the more opportunities for growth are gained, the better person she will become, and, as a result, the happier she will feel. The research systemized data from the Educare system and twelve institutions. It was a 10-years study from 2003 to 2013. This project provided longitudinal assessment to standardize children’s abilities after and during the early age of learning. Moreover, the study stresses that it is better to provide interactive education with strangers at an early age.
The household environment of a child is considered first. Scientific research by Fotso et al. (2012) encompassed information from such African regions as Nairobi and Kenya, in order to learn how the child’s mentality and health are affected by different levels of poverty. The nutrition and safe household condition play the profound role in determining person’s future. One may argue that it is unfair to judge from the origins, but there is an objection to that argument – access to education. Statistically, children from safe and financially stable countries have more chances to be educated enough for future well-being. In the studies, the picture of poor surroundings depicted fully: overcrowded settlements without enough access to a doctor, hot meal and clean water. It is not all about basic needs firstly, but it undoubtedly affects child malnutrition. There is a strong connection between income and the growth of the children. Poverty, including in urban areas are likely to result in negative outcomes for children. Nutrition is a crucial factor because the lack of food creates the lack of morality and physical stability, especially in children below two years old.
Third Groups of Studies
The importance of the early years. A main purpose of education is the development of critical thinking, which refers to the ability to think independently creative in order to progress and composite own projects and ideas.
Creativity is a complex phenomenon and is especially in danger of vanishing following the emergence of the new media and which rather develop primitive appreciation of the world and result in easily manipulated masses. Yildirim (2010) found that there is a connection between those activities that temper child’s physical and intellectual state and what scientists call ‘creative broadening’. This is a positive connotation, which makes upbringing even easier. Also, findings show that education should imitate or even involve real-life situations, so that the child will be prepared for the tests of fate. The level of education of the teacher or parent plays a crucial role in nurturing creativity, meaning not only the degree or the number of books read, or, but rather, it refers to the emotional and artistic state of the adult Yildirim (2010). When parents are filled with hopes, dreams and courage themselves, they can share these feelings with the children.
Forth Groups of Studies
Some important areas of learning as the children grow. There is another concern on children’s future that parents often claim to be responsible for - success. Will their offspring be successful in his or her job or personal life? To what amount should ambitions be encouraged in order not to empower superfluous and artificial hopes? If promoted wisely, elaborating leadership skills in a child can be extremely rewarding. Diamond’s (2014) study showed that using a diversity of methods such as discussion, observation and experimental learning is necessary for early and future education. These are difficulties that stand on the way of establishing of the future leader.
The study included an interview on how participants respond to the statements persuading that they are already the leaders (Diamond 2014) Responses change through the course of the interview where they open up to difficult tasks and when they resolve issues and stand up for themselves. The main understanding they obtain is that leaders are not only the presidents or the heads of multinational corporations, but ordinary professionals. In order to be happy, one should run his own life, to decide what he wants and how he wants to do this Diamond (2014). Relying on the abovementioned, in order to bring up a leader it is more useful to start from an early age, than to fracture a child’s mentality when the character has been already formatted. Under the constructionist theory, communicating by discussing with friends or colleagues, building opinions, providing the whole system of values and the picture of the world helps on the development. What is more, literature and its use in a practical way has great impact (Justice et al. 2015).
Most people are confident that reading is a key and remedy to everything. However, the study on the aloud reading educational method is an answer (Justice et al., 2015). This practical experiment encompassed a variety of students from the rural, suburban and urban areas so that each sector was covered. In the study, the six to six model was used in order for disabled child to have an assigned peer (Justice et al. 2015). The results show many positive connotations that shared reading and reading aloud improve literacy skills, develop imagination and fantasy, encourages own story-telling and artistic skills. This tool is effective in fighting with the refusal to read and everything that relies on grammar-writing, speaking opportunities (Justice et al., 2015). This also affects non-verbal intercourses, which gives chances to children with lower levels of cognition. Being literacy-able is the core step in starting an education. No technology can substitute reading of a fairy-tale before going to sleep in what the development of vocabulary, creativity and an inner moral compass is concerned (Justice et al., 2015).
There is also a finding on the advantages of the involvement concerning mathematical activities, where the approach is similar. The study of Cohrssen, et al. (2014) defined the answers of children while they studied and came to the conclusion that close connections to an educator is the main principle of learning with the result. A safe environment, trust, humor and light interaction stimulate the learning process. A child’s mind and attention may be conquered by sensitive attention to their interests and points of view. It is important to combine time of learning and leisure, provide breaks, and engage in hobbies, extracurricular activities of a child.
Fifth Groups of Studies
The necessary support for children. There are different techniques to approach a child. Permanent guidance will not lead to the formation of an independent individual. However, there are some spheres when a child should benefit from specific guidance and then be allowed to choose for himself. However hard a parent may try, the possibilities to guide a child are limited. This is because the cultural environment also plays a crucial importance in the child’s choices and way of thinking. In addition, since today’s societies are multicultural, influences may be multiple or contradicting. Guo (2015) elaborated on the special programs that help educating children not only as decent human beings, but as modern members of the society as well. This way, in a long perspective, issues of social injustice, sexual, gender, race prejudices and cruelty can be solved and overcome. Studies have come to the conclusion that the perception of the environment is crucial for children, including children of immigrant parents (Guo 2015). These curriculums should include subjects and activities that provide values such as understanding and respect. Research showed that educational institutions cannot provide effective skills that a child needs, but the education is able to find an approach which emphasizes multicultural communication skills. In order for this idea to work effectively, the social constructivist approach is suggested. Therefore, each member in the circuit has a task to fulfill: educators, whether teachers or parents and obviously, children (Guo 2015).
Sixth Groups of Studies
The role of technology in early childhood. The issue here is whether technology can substitute real-life communication. In an extraordinary research on how 20th and 21st centuries’ findings can shape more grown-up personality, researchers came to the conclusion that there is a possibility for technologies to stimulate study (Blackwell, et al., 2014). This means that the teacher may implement the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the schedule with other activities and lessons. These classes require fewer efforts of teachers and parents as well. In addition, the only way for this new-wave technology to work effectively is to combine with traditional teaching methods, thus, communicating with adults directly. This accustoms pupils to the real world’s environment and does not cause this much risky addiction to the computer. Moreover, there is no finding of the study that any of the basic communicating skills are increasingly evolved compared to traditional ways of learning (Blackwell et al., 2014). Firstly, some typical views that the least experienced teacher is the more technologies he will use is vanished. This statement has its logic, but only in a way, that younger generation is used to technology due to being born in this era. Secondly, confidence deprives of the number of use of the digital technology in the classroom. The more projects teacher involves in, the better he or she would feel about the result (Blackwell et al., 2014).
In the end, the probated factors include the practice, years of teaching, individual attitude and the technology possibilities. Those exogenous variables in conclusion have strict influence on the use of digital methods, but so called endogenous have the secondary impact. There are two-sided effects of the digital technologies (Blackwell, et al., 2014)
Seventh Groups of Studies
Summary and assessment of the role of parents. Education in the family, as in life itself, and even our behavior and our feelings for children are complex, volatile and contradictory. Additionally, not all parents are the same; they differ from many points of view. The relationship with the child, as well as with each person is deeply personal and unique. For example, if parents seem perfect, as they know the right answer to every question, in this case, they are unlikely to make the very start parental task - to bring up a child's need for independent search for new knowledge. That is necessary for the mentioned critical appreciation of the world. Parents form the first social environment of the child. Moreover, personalities of the parents play an essential role in child’s life. It is not a secret that in difficult times of life we turn to parents, especially to the mother. This is a special feeling that is different from other emotional ties, the feeling that paint child relations and parents. The specificity of the feelings that arise between children and parents is determined mainly by the fact that parental care is necessary for a child to stay alive, including food, medical supplies and household tools. If in the first years of life, parents’ love is necessary to ensure children’s care and safety, as they mature, parental love increasingly acts as emotional and psychological support and increases the persons’ internal security. From the other side, a parent’s love is the source and a guarantee of human welfare that supports physical and mental health. That is why the first and main task of parents is to ensure that a child knows that he or she is loved.
First similarity. The outcome of two researches shows numerous positive intentions that print-centered read-out loud enhance proficiency aptitudes, increase creative abilities and empowers narrative and imaginative aptitudes. This instrument is powerful in battling with the refusal to peruse and everything that depends on those punctuation composing, talking open doors (Justice et al., 2015, Cohrssen, et al., 2014).
Second similarity. One of the fundamental purposes of instruction ought to be the improvement of discriminating considering, which implies the capacity to think autonomously, keeping in mind the end goal to advance and compose own ventures and thoughts (Yildirim 2010; Diamond, 2014).
Third similarity. The child’s guardians are primarily responsible for the child's learning. The level of warmth, adoration, consolation can enhance the level of these exhaustive strategies (Yazejian, et al., 2015; Fotso et al 2012).
There is a concern about children’s future that parents frequently claim to be in charge of, namely achievement. Diamond’s (2014) investigation showed that utilizing techniques as talk, perception and test learning is essential for early and future age training. The outcomes showed that printed materials read aloud enhance proficiency aptitudes, create creative ability and dream, empowers own narrating and aesthetic abilities.
Most of the educator’s failures come from the inability to connect all the approaches. Either those who succeed have linked to traditional organizational ways or they have used the stage's typical content as the focus on the providing tasks with and without related ICTs. They did this by experimenting with their own exploiting technological make-up to implement classroom activities or using the way as a stage for training basic digital abilities. Consequently, it is better to use the modern techniques while communicating in real-time regime (Ramírez et al., 2015). Another study emphasizes the need to provide technologies for children through the teachers and examines the main basic factors that affect the appreciation of technologies (Blackwell et al., n.d). Studies explored the connection between these factors and the use of digital sphere innovations. It even showed that young children can go far beyond their educators; however, people who understand all the risks and benefits of it should accurately supervise the first meeting with technology.
In addition, because of the religious and social impacts there are views that the male children should be raised according to patriarchal values, by emphasizing individualism and not expressing emotions. Even with the feminine empowerment that has been in trend for the last 20 years, in the Western world, the burden of responsibility is still transmitted mainly to the male child. For example, in the class, hard organizing tasks are often given to the boys. This problem holds its roots in the vision that leadership is the same as commanding and operating. To the opposite, the core issue here is to equally support children in their capacity to learn on their own. Experience and practice is always better than just providing the tools and direct instructions on how to solve tasks. There should be a place for personal hesitation and probation. Children rely on their habits and reflexes, however, compared to adults, they are not so stable, so there are more options to choose how to perform, and as a result, there is a chance to learn by mistakes.
The secret behind nurturing creativity is stimulating talents. So, despite commercial stereotypes children can learn how to succeed, but for the right path special attitude is needed. There are special guides for these purposes, but what is more urgent is to examine the child himself, his interests, and features of character, simply, things he likes and dislikes. The educator should use all the emotional and intellectual potential he or she has and pass it to the child, who, in fact, will absorb the information immediately. And then for the parent or teacher it is good not to limit the child with the communication only with self, it is better to provide different people from different groups: old, young, male or female, however, which are aimed at the positive effect.
Further Research and Studies
The reviewed studies show that there are a variety of methods to develop a child’s personality in the critical stages. However, there are financial and social factors that can become complex obstructions. Further research should include practices of interactive non-verbal education with detailed analysis on games and techniques. Further research can also focus on theatrical methods that actors use in the elaboration of behavior.
Blackwell, C., Lauricella, A., & Wartella, E. (n.d.). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 82-90.
Cohrssen, C., Church, A., & Tayler, C. (2014). Pausing for learning: Responsive engagement in mathematics activities in early childhood settings. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(4), 95-102.
Diamond, A. (2014). Pre-service early childhood educators' leadership development through reflective engagement with experiential service learning and leadership literature. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(4), 12-20.
Fotso, J. C., Madise, N., Baschieri, A., Cleland, J., Zulu, E., Kavao Mutua, M., & Essendi, H. (2012). Child growth in urban deprived settings: Does household poverty status matter? At which stage of child development? Health & Place, 18(2), 375-384. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.12.003
Guo, K. (2015). Teacher knowledge, child interest and parent expectation: Factors influencing multicultural programs in an early childhood setting. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 40(1), 63-70.
Justice, L. M., Logan, J. R., Kaderavek, J. N., & Dynia, J. M. (2015). Print-focused read-alouds in early childhood special education programs. Exceptional Children, 81(3), 292-311. doi:10.1177/0014402914563693
Podesta, J. (2014). Habitus and the accomplishment of natural growth: Maternal parenting practices and the achievement of 'school-readiness'. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(4), 123-130.
Ramírez, E., Martín-Domínguez, J., Orgaz, B., & Canedo, I. (2015). Analysis of classroom practices with an ICT resource in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 86, 43-54. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.002
Yazejian, N., Bryant, D., Freel, K., & Burchinal, M. (2015). High-quality early education: Age of entry and time in care differences in student outcomes for English-only and dual language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 32, 23-39. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.02.002
Yildirim, A. (2010) Creativity in early childhood education program. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1561-1565. doi:10.1016/j.sb