The idea of European unification are rooted in the deep past, contemporary same integration trends originate in the events of the first post-war years, and the emergence of a united Europe is by far the most ambitious social process of the second half of the twentieth century. Study of its history, revealing its laws and assessing the possible effects of the subject of hundreds of scientific papers, but these topics are still relevant, as today one can hardly argue that the contradictions at all stages of development accompanying the European Union overcome and difficulties encountered on his way, leaving only in the memories of historians. On the contrary, with each new step forward integration process is becoming more complex and difficult, which creates a dilemma, the solution of which can not help the experience of other countries and peoples, as history knows no precedent setting up such tasks.
At the beginning of the XXI century Europe, serving as a lasting union of free and democratic states, has virtually single economy, being the largest free trade zone and a major investment center of the modern world, as a model of balanced social policy, it plays nepereotsenimuyu role in international relations, it generated new values and meanings can appear to change the face of civilization. Success uniting Europe give good reason to believe that in the new century the Old World have all chances to be leaders of the world 's economic and social progress. However, in different periods of the development of the European integration process proceeded at different rates and cause different circumstances, often faster integration was achieved in those areas where the rejection of old forms of national sovereignty occurred fairly painless, and, in contrast, has lagged where such refusal is associated with those or other difficulties. Meanwhile, in recent years in the development of integration processes in Europe are having a whole new dilemma ; adopted by European leaders in the late 80s and early 90s solutions whose purpose was undoubtedly to strengthen economic and political unity of the European countries, if so to speak, sociocultural or even emotional level, created a situation in which with unprecedented clarity cleared the unique features of the European Union and become apparent serious issues with which its leaders have never before encountered.
The Logic of European Integration
The fundamental basis of European integration were undoubtedly remain sociocultural proximity of European peoples and their common historical destinies. Since medieval Europe was a cultural whole, uniting the Christian religion, familiar to the educated classes, the Latin language, and trade and even, as some authors remind, precedents unified military policy - for example, during the Crusades. Later, Europe was the peoples of other continents as a single center, where the world spread characteristic of the Enlightenment ideals of civil society and personal freedom, democratic principles of the state apparatus and respect for human rights. In its unique as the creator won worldwide recognition of new values and meanings of Europe has become a true creator Stories, from this point of view, it appeared to humanity as whole and thus received additional incentives for internal unity.
Today, from the standpoint of a retrospective, it can be argued that the process of European integration, in all its phases which had the aim, let formal and not clearly articulated, the construction of a united Europe, the notion that each of its members to invest their meaning, never set a clear diagram which could be considered as a once and for all of the draft. This determines the nature of the process of European integration.
Proclamation of European citizenship seems to be one of the most ambitious ideas proposed for all half a century of European integration. Historically, the notion that citizenship (and this is noted by many researchers) contains a number of meanings ; citizenship establishes the legal status of the individual, is an instrument of political identity, becomes a sign of political loyalty imposes duties, rights, and even provides a sample determines appropriate social behavior. The ambiguity of the notion of citizenship is due, not least, the richness and variety of social and political forms of changed in Europe since the emergence of this institution in the ancient Greek polis. Therefore, the meaning given to the concept of citizenship, should be correlated with the specific historical experience of a society, and therefore none of its interpretation can not be considered the only true or even the main, among other
European Citizenship: the Idea and the Reality
Proclamation of European citizenship, as experts note, directly or indirectly lead to the important positive consequences : firstly, it strengthened the international character of the European community, and secondly, it is emphasized that the objectives of the European Union are to develop the personality of its citizens through the provision of greater freedoms, even in the face of declining characteristic for any nation-state functions of political control and, finally, the European leaders to solve important problems - they have limited powers of national states, without creating a supranational state structure, while many citizens proclaimed, existing in almost every European country autonomies EU citizens without giving themselves these autonomies state status.
Despite this, the concept of European citizenship and today is very different from the concepts of citizenship, political researcher familiar principles of the organization of the national state.
On the one hand, the European Union is the political community, which proclaims the citizens of its constituent countries have the right of citizens of the Union, not a sovereign state in the proper sense of the word, and even civil rights can be guaranteed not only by states, the actual practice of providing non-state institutions are unlikely hardly be recognized as a rich and diverse.
On the other hand, individuals who acquire European citizenship, to a greater extent vested additional rights than are burdened with additional responsibilities : a citizen of the European Union do not pay direct taxes, is not obliged to perform military service and has no opportunity to express their attitude to politics pursued by European referendum or how some other way, thereby violated considered a universal principle that no rights without responsibilities and duties without rights.
Thus, the main conclusion that can be drawn from the discussion of the problems of European citizenship and practices reflect this concept in the legal sources, is that Europe has outgrown the level of a purely economic integration and realized that European citizenship and democratic Europe can not arise on the foundations of economic practice because, on the one hand, suggest the presence of objective political will, the ability to modify a scheme of the European institutions, in accordance with the principles of democracy and civil society, and on the other - a subjective feeling of civic unity, the same European identity, the creation of which is becoming "the most important anthropological problem at the turn of the century. " And today, in the words of former French Finance Minister Dominique Strauss-Kahn, to the political leaders of the European countries face the obvious, though difficult choice : "We must either complete the already started, or humbly explain to the people that we were wrong, and expect their verdict on a national referendum ".
Are Dilemmas of European Integration can be Solved?
European integration gradually were prepared by previous development of Europe, but its interpretation of the possibility and desirability began only in the middle of the XIX century until very recently came within the traditional political theory. Meanwhile, we have tried to show that the main problems faced by the European integration process, there are exactly where its natural flow generated in the first place and the needs of economic development based on cultural affinity Europeans meets political obstacles or require political clearance. This fact indicates, in our opinion, two circumstances.
The first seems obvious enough. Being started immediately after the Second World War, European integration was intended to use the cultural, social and economic proximity of states and peoples of Western Europe in order to prevent potential conflicts between them and accelerate their economic development. In the 50s there was a clear dissonance between the common historical fate of Europe and the ruggedness of its population belong to different nations and states. By the end of the 90s such dissonance ceased to exist, and today a citizen of the European Union has far more rights and opportunities, undertaken within the whole Union than their number, he can or wants to use. Therefore, it can be argued that over the past half century the degree of economic and political integration has come almost full compliance with the currently existing degree of cultural unity of the European peoples. In fact, calls for the democratization of the EU through the creation of a single political entity, which is often heard in statements such supporters of European federalism, as Prodi and Joschka Fischer, is unlikely to resonate among Europeans as long as, on the one hand, management institutions of the European Union becomes more attractive field of self- expression and political elites than national policy, and on the other - until the European identity already obvious " external " world is not transformed into intra-European consensus that, in the words of Thomas Aquinas, is not born of general thoughts, and of the general will. We believe that arise on the way contradictions only show that henceforth political integration should rather follow the cultural and social cohesion of the European peoples and not to prejudge it, of course, it involves a long process, but, as noted by R. Schumann, "Europe will not be created quickly or according to a single plan, it will be built through the successive achievements that lay the foundations of real solidarity."
The second factor is less obvious, though more important from all points of view. Within the European Union fold qualitatively new, not known traditional political theory of coexistence of peoples and nations under the spray of the sovereign rights and responsibilities of individuals uncertainty, forms that are not based on the principles of civil society in the classical sense, but rather some kind of revival of the historical memory of the last continent, of course, rich achievements of the last centuries. While many analysts believe that the voluntary limitation of sovereignty of European countries, which began with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, will continue and there is no alternative, we believe that this limit will be due not to the needs of a hypothetical supranational federal state, but rather in an "optimal combination of unity and diversity " that makes the European Union " the most complex political entity of all that has ever been created by human effort, "and that seems to have been achieved. It follows that taken in recent years, economic and political measures not only meet the urgent needs of the continent in mutual rapprochement, but in some cases far exceed them, in our opinion, the problems faced by the current European integration, not only require their immediate resolution how much revision benchmarks towards achieving which they arose.
In this article, we discussed two of the most notable, in our view, European integration dilemma, dilemmas, united primarily by the fact that they appeared in the practice of the most ambitious, but at the same time and by all accounts, is essential element of the integration program 90s - The implementation of the first of three " pillars " of the Treaty on European Union in 1992.
Returning to the above, and summing up the results, it should be noted that the first of the world dilemmas relating to European citizenship, it is much more difficult in the ideological and theoretical aspects, namely its analysis leads to the conclusion that (and opportunities) of the formation in Europe " post-government " political community and the " post-national " citizenship that few today who are assessed as potential options for further development of the European Union. Today it is difficult to predict the specific forms that can take such a development of political institutions, but some of these forms are guessed in a fundamentally new positioning of the EU on the international stage in the development of qualitatively new mechanisms for political expansion, during which, based on the principles of fair representation occurs voluntary adherence to the Union of States and finally, in a slow, evolutionary hierarchy formation sovereignties. At the same time, the complexity of this dilemma is due to the introduction of the relevant legal standards, which have not yet had a dramatic impact on the practice of political and economic decision-making, and that (at least in principle) can be modified and revised without catastrophic consequences.
On the contrary, the dilemma associated with the introduction of the euro and the resulting formation of a single European financial system is more complex in the economic and practical aspects, while serious theoretical problems behind it is not necessary. Introduction of the euro has once again shown that the degree of economic unification of Europe is very high, and the possibility of controlling European institutions exceed the wildest speculation only ten years ago. However, the transition to the euro poses problems, especially with what has not experienced the financial system in any country of the world. In our view, nothing is more important today than to avoid the temptation to keep the pace of economic reforms in the European Union as a whole, how they were going to prepare for the introduction of the euro. Running the euro into circulation primarily pursued far-reaching political goals, and now must wait until the results become apparent this fantastic experiment. Despite the fact that the use of a single currency in the absence of fiscal and budgetary systems is nonsense, it is no more a break traditional ideas in the economy than the European experiments with citizenship break tradition in political theory. Given that, unlike the declaration of European citizenship, the introduction of the euro significantly for every European that the failure of this project would have catastrophic consequences, should not, as we believe, to rush to the creation of supra-national fiscal institutions as it may seem reasonable and justified.
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