Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder which results into lack of attention, over-activity, impulsivity or a combination of any of the problems aforementioned. ADHD usually results into children having another developmental, psychiatric or behavioral disorder (Hartmann, 2003) Some of the problems that can be developed by children having ADHD include; physical development disorder, Emotional development disorder and intellectual development disorder. The disorders need to be detected whenever they occur so that they are corrected as soon as possible. This will help save on the resources which could have otherwise been spent at the later stages of the complications. (Robins, 1991) Some complications cannot be corrected when they are discovered at later its advanced stage. These developmental disorders are discussed below:
Children having ADHD may exhibit some forms of physical development problems. Several studies have indicated that children with ADHD usually have some issues with their physical developments as compared to those children who do not have ADHD. However such physical problems are usually insignificant. The most common observable characteristic about a person having ADHD is that they will tend to behave like small children as they have very poor impulse control. A person who is 19 may behave like a child who is 11. This may not have a direct effect on the physical appearance of that person as such a person may appear to be normal but the behavior may make people see him/her as immature. (Rickels,1981)
Children with ADHD do have problems with their emotional development and maturity. Cases of slow emotional development result into a person who was quiet at the earlier stages turning out to be agitated at the later stages of development. ADHD also results into delayed emotional developments which may cause children to show angry outbursts and sudden mood shifts at certain occasions. There are studies which have proved that children with ADHD have their emotional development delayed by up to 30% as compared to their counterparts who are not having ADHD. Children who have ADHD can also be seen to be nervous and are always blaming others and getting into fights easily. They can also be seen to be affected easily by various situations and experiences. Such a problem can have adverse effect to the children and can be best controlled by training the children on how to control their emotions. Children who have ADHD are also seen to be more emotionally immature as compared to those who do not have ADHD. Such children can be seen to be several years below the emotional level of their classmates. Such causes problems especially in social situations whereby they have problems making friends or relating to other children of the same age. Children who have ADHD also have self esteem issues whereby they feel different or isolated.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a form of worry disorder which is characterized by excessive and uncontrollable irrational worry about everyday things that is not proportional to the actual source of worry. (Rickels, 1991)This form of excessive worry often interferes with the daily functioning of the individuals involved. Individuals suffering from this type of disorder usually exhibit a variety of physical symptoms in their bodies. Generalized anxiety disorder usually results into retarded physical development, delayed emotional development and a low pace of intellectual development. (Rickels, 1991)
GAD has several effects on the physical development of a child. Some of the physical symptoms which can be experienced by people with GAD include: fatigue, headaches, numbness in hands and feet, muscle tensions and aches, trembling, rashes and the inability to fully control anxiety. GAD usually has several effects especially when it comes to the physical development of an individual. GAD results into an individual worrying so much about facts which may be of no benefit to the individual in anyway. Such worries affect an individual’s ways of life like diet and daily routine. Once the diet has been affected, then the physical development of the affected individual is compromised.
The main part of the development phase which is affected by GAD is the emotional part. Since GAD involves an individual worrying too much, this can result into even a worse situation as the affected individuals are never settled. Individuals who have GAD usually do not have a settled mind. They keep on worrying about so many things. A certain type of disorder called Separation disorder is likely to emerge. This type of disorder makes an individual to have a low self esteem and thereby not intermingling with their counterparts. Such types of disorders usually affects the way people relate with each other whereby the affected people are encouraged to learn on how to manage the problem of low self-esteem and separation disorders. (Hersey, 1990)
GAD also contributes to retarded intellectual development. Since GAD involves the affected individuals worrying so much about people who may not even be worrying about their welfare. This obviously means that the intellectual development of the affected individuals will have to be retarded. The individuals take too much time worrying about their friends and failing to focus on their own welfare. Children who behave in such manners usually have a lower intellectual capability. The intellectual development of the affected children can be corrected through carrying out a set of counseling lessons to the affected parties. This will help reduce the anger and worry portrayed by the GAD patients.
Mental disorders usually have a significant effect in the development of a child in several ways. There are some disorders which are not easily visible in an individual whereas there are others which can be easily seen. Both ADHD and GAD have effects on the general wellbeing of the individuals being highlighted. In severe cases, a child may be subjected to a special school whereby their wants can be easily met. Most cases of ADHD and GAD are minor. Care should be taken so that whenever such a problem is detected it is corrected easily. If such a problem is not corrected in time then the effects of the two complications can be disastrous. (Robins, 1991)
Robins LN, Regier DA, eds. (1991) Psychiatric disorders in America: the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York: The Free Press,.
Rickels, K; E. Schweizer (1990) The Clinical Course and Long Term Management of Generalised Anxiety Disorder. J Clinical Psychopharmocology.
Hersey, Jane, (1990) Why Can’t My Child Behave?
Hartmann, Thom (2003)The Edison gene: ADHD and the gift of the hunter child. Rochester, Park Street Press.