(DNA Quantification)Mitosis and Meiosis) (Genetics)
1. At 360nm, the DNA strongly absorbs light and the value generated allows easier estimation of solution concentration.
2. Contamination of RNA can easily result in an overestimation of DNA concentration due to high occurrence of RNA secondary structures.
3. The cell wall of plant cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. In this cell the DNA is located in the nucleolus and enclosed by a phospholipids membrane. In plants, the phospholipids tend to exist in the diacyl form.
4. The variations in DNA are affected by the number chromosomes in the tissue.
5. The instrument must be purchased from authorized Applied Biosystem agencies. In addition, the user must have networking experience for data flow, resetting the instrument and experience in data maintaining table.
6. Ethanol and salt are less polar compared to water, this makes DNA not to dissolve. The chemical property behind this is solubility.
7. The cell undergoes mitosis to duplicate its chromosomes containing DNA so that daughter cells have equal chromosomes. The chromosomes duplicate pulling the cell to the opposite sides resulting to cytokinesis which divides the cell into two. The structural features in replication are the nitrogenous bases which forms proper hydrogen bond that allows DNA to replicate.
Mitosis and Meiosis
1. During prophase phase the sister chromatins are still attached.
2. An extra chromosome implies that each gene may be producing excess protein products than normal.
3. As a result of too many chromosomes, upon fertilization the baby will receive an extra chromosome known as trinosomy or a missing chromosome monosomy .Pregnancies with monosomy and trinosomy result in the birth of a baby with health problems.
4. Skin has a high rate of mitosis this is because many cells on the surface are sloughed off.
5. Sister chromatids are the identical copies of chromosomes while homologous chromosomes are when two pairs of sister chromatids bond together forming a tetrad.
6. The law of independent assortment does not apply given that homologous chromosomes are expected to separate independently.
7. In anaphase 1, each chromosome is composed of two chromatids and in anaphase 2 each chromosome has 1 chromatid .Anaphase 1 occurs in a haploid cell while anaphase 2 occurs in a diploid. Sister chromatids separate in anaphase 2 while homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase 1.
8. In meiosis two sister chromatids separate. This is important since the sex cells in meiosis 1 contain ½ the human chromosomes. Meiosis 2 ensures that the baby get ½ its chromosomes from both parents. If it stops in meiosis 1, there will be no sharing of chromosomes.
9. 2 cells with 26 chromosomes per each division
1. Both parents are heterogeneous.
Using a Punnet square, T=tongue rolling while t=non rollers. The genotypes and ratios will be:
1T:T: 2Tt: tt
Tt non roller
Tt non roller
Tt non roller
tt non roller
2. Ww=widows peak and ww=does not have the widows peak and WW=Widows peaks.
a) Offspring genotypes, Ww and ww
b) Phenotypes Widow`s Peak and straight
d) Man genotype is WW or Ww.
3. Let the woman be hp and man be HH
The phenotypic ratio is 50%:50%
4. Junk DNA contains large amount of information which is not translated to useful proteins which are used in DNA determination.
5. This is because the under any circumstances the provision of the DNA test requires informed consent and protections from the donor.
6. It is multiplied by two because of double red and double whites.
8. Gel matrix is made up of a type of cross linked polymer. The cross linking creates a sieve. Larger pieces of DNA takes long time to work their way through the holes than smaller pieces.DNA is treated to straighten it out giving it a uniform care and this is what forces DNA to move out of the gel.
9. If FBI only notices 1 or 2 STRs, they could not tell accurately each of us apart since majority of us share at least one identical STR .The use of 13 STR can tell human DNA apart after analyzing an individuals DNA wit all 13 locations.
10.The dimples, widow’s peak and unattached earlobes are inheritable characteristics .Therefore, the mother of the teen should have all these characteristics .The 2 female is the mother of the teen, this is because the teen inherited the dimples and widow`s peak while the unattached earlobes were inherited from the father.