Protein synthesis is the process through which the biological cells produce new protein molecules. The process helps in balancing the cellular proteins that are lost through export or degradation. The synthesis of proteins occurs through a series of processes known as translation where the ribosomes are the organelles that are involved in the creation of proteins. Translation is a part of gene expression using the messenger RNA or mRNA that is produced through transcription of the DNA molecule. The produced mRNA is then decoded to produce a chain of specific amino acids using the ribosome complex. The amino acid Continue reading...
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Essays on DNA
Sample Essay On Urinary System
This is the discussion of the results of the anatomy of the urinary system. The report analyses the structure and functions of various organs and cells that are involved in the excretion of toxic material from the body.
Simple cuboidal epithelium of the kidney the
The epithelial cells: are uni-layered, they are square in shape. The nucleus is placed at the centre of theses tissues. They have Squamous cells that are plate like. They appear very thin.
Surface epithelium: have different surface proteins. Facilitate absorption and transportation of filtered materials in the kidney tubes.
Transitional Epithelium of the Bladder
ct = connective tissuelu = lumenrbc = red blood cell (stained bright pink in this Continue reading...
Free Report About Fluid Flow: Heat Conduction Experiment 1 & 2
Methods of Heat Transfer
The first method through which heat is transferred from one object to another is conduction. Conduction occurs in liquids and solids through transfer of kinetic energy present in one particle to the immediate particle(s) in its surrounding. By considering the bonds existing between atoms and molecules in solids as elastic links, the vibration of one particle due to increase energy level caused by heat, the next in its line vibrate too. This process is replicated in adjacent particles thereby allowing transfer of thermal energy from a body with a higher temperature as compared to the one with Continue reading...
Free Genetically Modified Organisms Research Paper Example
A genetically modified organism refers to organism whose genetic makeup has been intentionally altered (Jumba, 2010). They involve both plants and animals. Genetically modified plants are referred to as transgenic plants whereas genetically modified animals are referred to as transgenic animals. According to Starr, Evers and Starr (2011), the most commonly used genetically modified organisms include yeast and bacteria. This is attributed to the metabolic ability of the cells of these organisms to make complex organic molecules.
Science behind Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetic modification is normally carried out in the laboratory. According to Keefer, two procedures are normally applied in the transformation of the Continue reading...
Good Essay About Effect Of Substrate Concentration (Succinate) On The Rate Of Cellular Respiration
All cells in a living organism require energy to drive various cellular activities such as transport of molecules and movement among others. The rate of cellular respiration may be affected by the substrate concentration, pH level and enzyme concentration among other factors. This experiment aimed to study the rate of cellular respiration in isolated mitochondria under different conditions. It was hypothesized that if the concentration of the substrate is increased then there will be an increase in the rate of cellular respiration. Mitochondrial suspension was used as the source of succinate that was used as the substrate. The level Continue reading...
Good Example Of Report On Human DNA Polymorphism
A polymerase chain reaction also known as PCR refers to a technique that is used in the amplification of a DNA fragment making huge numbers of the original fragment. The process uses an enzyme known as DNA polymerase to multiply the DNA fragment. Other components that are necessary for a PCR reaction are the DNA template that is provided by the sample being multiplied, the primers, and nucleotides. The experiment aimed to examine a number of human DNA polymorphisms, the PV92 Alu polymorphism and the mitochondrial control region using human DNA. This was achieved by isolating the mitochondrial DNA Continue reading...
Example Of Short Questions Essay
Re-uptake involves the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by any of the neurotransmitter receptors or transporters. The transporters involved are usually of pre-synaptic neurons. Re-uptake occurs after the neurotransmitter has transmitted a neural impulse. Re-uptake is very crucial in order for the normal functioning of synapses to take place. This is because it allows the neurotransmitters to be recycled, thereby regulating their levels in the synapse. This in turn dictates the length of time it takes for a signal - generated by neurotransmitter release - to last. Neurotransmitters are usually large hydrophilic molecules that cannot pass through the neuronal membranes. For Continue reading...
Good Essay About Life Span Perspective Paper
Life span perspective of development
Life span perspective of development is the study of insight information into the development of an individual throughout their life span. Life span perspective of development includes studying such aspects of human life like who an individual is, how individuals became who they are and who the individuals will become (Sigelman, & Rider, 2011). Psychoanalytic theory of development provides insight into life span of human development while explaining the stages of development that an individual undergoes in their entire life span. Lifespan perspective of development provides critical information regarding the effects of heredity and the environment on development of an Continue reading...
The Role Of Nutrigenomics And Metabolomics In Public Health-Cancer Research Paper Example
Most of the world’s chronic diseases are preventable by long term dietary behavior. Out of the ten major causes of deaths for Americans, diet is a contributing factor to at least five of them. These diseases are such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. A report by the Joint World Health Organization on diet made in 2003 revealed that, most of the world’s chronic diseases can be prevented by regular physical exercise and maintenance of a healthy weight. This finding is valid up to date. According to this report, a person’s genome determined their susceptibility to Continue reading...
Clearance Mechanisms Of Incompatible Red Blood Cells Essay Sample
The binding of antibodies to red blood cells can lead to potentially fatal outcomes such as hemolytic transfusion reactions, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn.1 Information regarding the first steps of hemolytic transfusion reactions is well documented. It is, however, unclear why the severity of hemolytic transfusions experienced by different individuals ranges from mild to very severe.2 The pathophysiology of the final pathways and downstream events of red blood cell hemolysis are also yet to be fully elucidated although research is ongoing.2 A recent study by Liepkalns et al. (2012)1 has reinvigorated debate on the Continue reading...
Sample Research Proposal On Biology
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) encodes a DNA-editing deaminase, which is a group of the Cytidine Deaminase family (Bello). This protein is concerned in somatic gene conversion, hypermutation, and class-switch recombination of Ig (immunoglobulin genes). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been expressed in B cells at germinal center and starts the events, which lead to class switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes and somatic hypermutation. Additionally to this primary responsibility in immune diversification, deviant targeting of Activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity leads to translocations and point mutations of oncogenes linked with B-cell lymphoma. Lately, AID has been related in active DNA demethylation ( Continue reading...
Good Example Of Essay On Health News
According to the article, treatment of poisoned patients in a poison center is much cheaper as compared to poisoned patient treated in the hospital. Furthermore the patients treated in the poison centers takes shorter time to recover. The study compared the data obtained from Illinois Poison Center and data from the Illinois Hospital Association, and the results show that for every 10 patients treated in Poison centers there is a decrease in hospital charges by $2078 and the length of stay for poisoned patients was .058 days shorter. Notwithstanding the study finding that poison centers have shown Continue reading...
Lab Session Essays Examples
C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways
Plants have the ability to grown and survive in a number of different environments. They can adapt from hot and dry to frigid temperatures. In order to adapt to various environmental conditions plants have to adapt and develop mechanisms to survive different conditions. One mechanism of adaptation involves the mode of fixing carbon dioxide. Carbon fixation is the process of incorporating inorganic Carbon to an organic form. Photosynthesis is the process of carbon fixation used by the plants. C3 plants usually are found in cold, temperate climate and are most widely distributed worldwide. They use environmental carbon-dioxide (CO2) and Continue reading...
Good Example Of Essay On Second Generation Drug
A second-generation drug is a drug that is designed to target a patient’s molecules that have defects. These defects may include cancerous cells in the body of a patient. Cancer growth in the human body is the unregulated or uncontrolled growth of cells with metastasis and usually this growth spreads to the other organs and tissues of the body. The second-generation drug targets the cells that are continuously reproducing and thus prevent the cells from continuously reproducing uncontrollably.
The clinical candidate tipifarnib is a second-generation drug that targets the causative agent of the chagas disease. - Protozoan parasite, Continue reading...
Free Research Paper About Milk And Protein
Pasteurization is a process that involves heating of raw milk to a certain temperature within a given set of time. This process kills harmful bacteria found in unpasteurized milk, for example, Salmonella, Listeria and E coli responsible for food borne illnesses. These bacterial organisms are responsible for human diseases such as Typhoid, diphtheria, Listeriosis and tuberculosis. The process was first initiated by Louis Pasteur in the year 1864. Pasteurized milk can stay for a certain period without refrigeration. However, refrigeration especially after opening the seal, is still necessary because of some nonpathogenic bacteria that because food spoilage and is Continue reading...
Free Saturation Line For Water/Steam Report Sample
A better understanding of thermodynamics may be achieved by understanding the general molecular structure of matter as it exists in water and steam. Molecules are the smallest amount of the compound material that has complete chemical traits of that element, which can exist. Molecules consist of smaller particles that define basic elements called atoms. Most minerals constituents can exist in solid, liquid and vapor states called phases. The three phases of a substance can only coexist in equilibrium at a given temperature and pressure. In the liquid state, the molecules can move, but they are still one molecular diameter Continue reading...
Free Essay About Answering Questions
Lab 1: Ethical Issue in the Movie Gattaca. The epicentre of ethical issues in the movie Gattaca is the manner in which an individual ought to be judged. Should it be by the genetic composition one is born with or by the character traits, personality attributes and ambitions chosen by an individual? Vincent is born with genetic weaknesses that could result in ailments in the future. His genetic composition denies him access to his dream job despite the fact that he achieves the required grades in school and is a strong and athletic young man. As a result, Vincent Continue reading...
Anthropology Essays Examples
1 a) The research is essential in that it gives new different approaches that the ancestors employed in getting around. As much as this may contradict the initial information available about bipedalism, it gives another insight on how movement was achieved in the ancient times by the ancestors.
1 b) By saying that Australopithecus sediba had a combination of primitive and derivative features, the authors of the article aim to reveal how the Australopithecus sediba had a combination of qualities of both the modern man and the ancient man. Essentially, these features were in the upper limb, hand, foot, Continue reading...
What Is The Purpose Of Ethical Conduct, And On What Criteria Would You Evaluate Essay Samples
This then, is what Evolutionary Pragmatism assumes to be the purpose of Ethics, and the purpose of Philosophy - the establishment of basic guidelines and rules for deciding which behaviour is Good and Bad, so that the individual will not have to make detailed analyses most of the time. (The Purpose of Ethics, n.d.)
So the aim of this is so necessary is that the person most of the moment does not have the necessary material to create an "all-knowing" selection of which alternative sequence of deed is "for the best". Most of the time, the person needs the Continue reading...
Transformation Of Bacteria And Genetic Engineering Report Examples
ABSTRACT – Genetic engineering now has straight forward ecofriendly strategies to produce transformation in plasmids. The transformation process allows engineers to introduce DNa with specific desired capabilities into a host plasmid. In this way plants can be created that are able to resist a particular enemy or stressor without having to use toxics like herbicides and insecticides. The bacteria E. Coli was used to determine whether it can be made resistant to ampicillin or not. AmpR was integrated into the host cells and the tracer, GFP was used to identify expressed cells. The laboratory demonstrated that transformation by plasmids Continue reading...
There Are Different Tools In Nanotechnology As Shown Below Essay Sample
Atomic force microscopy (AFM): used for imaging, visualizing, taking measures and manipulating objects in nanometer scale. The device has a mechanical probe that senses the material placed on its surface (John 1).
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM): the STM is used to perform atomic level imaging of surfaces. Its lateral resolution is about 0.1 nanometers while its depth resolution is around 0.01 nanometers. This measure suffices in manipulating an image that is good enough (John 1).
Nanoimpellers: Tubes made from light-sensitive silica. They are used to carry cancer-killing medication and target only cancer cells. These nanoimpellers are injected Continue reading...
Free Ccjs302 Criminalistics II: The Scientific Disciplines Final Examination Essay Example
The type of bloodstain evidence at the scene is a cast off pattern. According to Becker (2005), a cast-off pattern normally results in blood striking nearby surfaces such as walls, floors and ceilings. A cast-off pattern indicates that a blunt force trauma to the head. The large wound on top of the head is indicative of repeated use of the blunt force weapon on the victim.
The first step in the documentation process of the room would involve conducting an initial scan of the room to ascertain the evidence present. This would then be followed by photographing of the Continue reading...
Good Essay On The Role Of Toll Like Receptors In Allergy
Allergy is an immune system disorder. Allergy or allergic reaction is a hypersensitivity to otherwise innocuous substances present in the environment. The allergic reaction is usually a rapid response; however, the sensitivity to certain allergens can be acquired over a period. It was previously called the type one hypersensitivity. It is characterized by an over activation of leucocytes, called the mast cells and the basophils following activation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) (Frigas, Gleich 1986). This activation of the basophiles and mast cells triggers an inflammatory response.
Pathophysiology of the allergic response
The type 1 hypersensitivity reaction is initiated when an allergen is introduced to Continue reading...
Police Crime Control Policies Research Papers Example
Police crime control policies
Crime control is paramount for the economic development of any civilized society. The political stability of any nation is measured by the crime rate. Countries that have low crime rates are more attractive to investors and business leaders. The crime rate in the United States of America was high in the 1990s. The cities were controlled by criminal gangs and at times the fights between criminal gangs took place in the streets. The frequency of homicides was relatively high. The residential places were not spared from crime related violence. Law enforcement officers were criticized for being weaklings. The police Continue reading...
Sample Research Paper On Enzymes Scientific Paper
Enzymes are the large biological molecules that play the role of metabolic processes responsible for maintaining the human life. They have the ability of high selectivity, as natural catalysts. They accelerate both the specifity and rate of metabolic processes, from food digestion and DNA synthesis. Most scientific enzymes are proteins in nature, even though some RNA molecules which are catalytic have been studied. The structures of enzymes normally adopt a three dimensional structure, and in order to assists in catalysis, it may employ the organic and inorganic forms. This experiment is meant to describe the properties and characteristics of Continue reading...
Adrenalin Molecular Structure Essay Sample
Mephedrone molecular structure
Nephyrone molecular structure
There are several structural differences between the three chemical substances that make adrenalin distinguishable from both Mephedrone and Nephyrone. The adrenalin molecular structure has a more stable structure more than both Mephedrone and Nephyrone. The adrenalin structure has an extra OH molecule that makes it distinguishable from the Mephedrone and Nephyrone. Several analytical tests can be used to determine this difference.
There are various chromatographic techniques that can be used to test the purity of the adrenalin tablet. The first method is paper chromatography. This chromatographic method is used to analyze chemicals that Continue reading...
Molecular And Metabolic Biochemistry Essays Examples
I confirm that this work is my own work. Where I have rewritten someone else's ideas in my own words, I have identified this with a reference.Where I have used words directly from a book or any other source, I have enclosed these in quotation marks and have identified the source in the reference section.
Below is a photograph of gel electrophoresis result obtained from the experiment.
L G-NTC G-DNA G-P H-NTC H-DNA H-P
The gel electrophoresis result showed 14 visible bands from the lane loaded with the ladder. No visible band was observed on the lane Continue reading...
Free Essay On Gene Technology: GM Crop Plants
The Biological Basis
The term Genetic Modification (GM) refers to the techniques by which the genetic composition of a plant is manipulated by adding specific genes to it. Every plant contains genes, which are DNA sequences containing information that determine its specific characteristics or traits. The genes are “inheritance units” that provide instructions for the development and functionality of the plant’s next generation. Crop plants modified through this process are called GM or genetically engineered crops, or transgenic crops (“Process of Developing Genetically Modified (GM) Crops.”, n.d.). The principal steps in the process are:
- The wanted gene is isolated; e.g. Continue reading...
Good Example Of Cell Differentiation Research Paper
Eukaryotes are organisms that made up of cells that have a have a nucleus that is bound by a membrane. They also have membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotes are organisms whose cells do not have a nucleus or any membrane-encased organelles.
Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have DNA as their genetic composition or material. Secondly, both cells are membrane bound. They both have ribosomes. They have nearly the same basic metabolism. Both cells have vacuoles. Lastly, the two cells both have vesicles.
Eukaryote cells have a nucleus while the prokaryote cells lack a nucleus. Eukaryotes have a true membrane binding the Continue reading...
Good Example Of Localization In Wireless Sensor Network Research Paper
Technological advancements have facilitated the design and building of ad hoc sensor networks that have uses in a range of applications. Due to their low power processors, inexpensive nodes, modest memory and wireless capability, ad hoc sensor devices have been used in a number of novel applications such as habitat monitoring, target tracking, smart building failure detection and even in military. These applications necessitate require accurate orientation of the nodes with respect to the global coordinate systems in order to derive meaningful data. This paper attempts to explore some of the localization techniques that have been adopted including Monte Continue reading...
Essay On Process Of Crude Oil Separation
Crude oil, also known as petroleum, is one of the most important natural resources. It is a fossil fuel that is non-renewable and has different components such as hydrocarbon compounds and other materials like oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, salt and water. It is normally extracted from the ground, under the seas, and on land and is then transported to refineries. Most of the substances are removed in the refinery, and the oil is broken down and blended into useful products (McCants, 1989). Some of these products include medicines, plastics, fabrics, dyes, cosmetics, and transport fuels. Transportation of crude oil is Continue reading...
Example Of Cons Of Genetic Modification Of Plants For Food Essay
Genetic modification, as the name suggests, is a biotechnological process by which the genetic material in an organism such as plants is altered in a manner that does not take place in the nature or via nature-influenced recombination. Such organisms which are called as the Genetically Modified Organisms or GMOs find immense practical applications in the modern times. They are used extensively for carrying out medical and biological scientific work, are used to manufacture new pharmaceutical medications and importantly, are used in agriculture to produce good quality crops. The reason why genetic modification has gained prominence in agriculture is Continue reading...
Good Relationship Draft Essay Example
The relationship between man and woman is a very complicated thing in when you look at it in depth. Men tend to be larger and stronger women tend to be smaller and not a strong. Yet in still, people consider men and women to be equal mental and the 2000 century. This essay will aim at comparing the relationship between men and women and explain the significance of the differences and similarities that may exist between them.
Although, men and women are similar, they contain extensive differences. Some of the similarities between men and women are purely being human. Continue reading...
Biology Of Perception Movie Reviews Examples
Dr.Bruce Lipton lectures about the connection between biology and personal beliefs or perceptions. “The Biology of Perception” is a piece by this brilliant doctor about where matter and mind meet. Through a thorough research in quantum physics and cell biology, Lipton has made a major breakthrough that shows that our bodies can be changed by our own perceptions. Just as the brain that receives signals from various stimuli and respond to them accordingly, our cells have a brain (nucleus) which responds accordingly to signals received from external stimuli.
Dr.Bruce points out that mediation has equal healing power as drugs Continue reading...
Breast Cancer Research Paper Examples
Breast cancer can be referred to as a cancer type that originates from breast tissue, mostly from the milk ducts’ inner lining or the lobules, which supply the ducts with milk (Sariego, 2010). Cancers arising from ducts are called ductal carcinomas, as those from lobules are called lobular carcinomas. Breast cancer affects humans, as well as other mammals. Breast cancer also affects in men.
Breast cancer occurs due to an environmental factor’s interaction with a host that is genetically susceptible. Normal cells undergo division as many times as required and stop. They get attached to other cells where Continue reading...
Good Example Of Research Paper On Sstsh[d, D0] = -D/D0 (1)
Radiations such as - rays, UV rays, etc. have ionizing effects on tissues and have the ability kill cells and inactivate viruses. A detailed analysis of the survival of such cells and viruses are imperative in many fields, including radiation oncology, public health and environmental photobiology. However, the mathematical and statistical tools based on target theory in radiobiology are mentioned in literature (Alpen, 1988, Smith, 1989, Hall, 2000) and are wide in use in the analysis of experimental data involving biophysical mechanisms of the repair of radiation damage. This work demonstrates the use of probabilistic approaches in descriptions Continue reading...
Scattering Of Sunlight Essay Example
As sunshine moves through the atmosphere, it is impacted by air molecules, clouds and particulates, resulting in scattering of light. The extent to which light is dispersed by air molecules depends on the wavelength of the different inherent colors. Colors with shorter wavelengths are spread more than those with longer wavelengths. Blue is most susceptible to scattering thus explaining why the sky is blue. The visibility of light scattered by air molecules depends on the intensity of the light beam (University of Arizona).
On the other hand, when the atmosphere has matter like particulates and cloud drops, there is Continue reading...
Good Example Of Pharmaceutics And Formulation: Solid Dispersion Essay
Solid dispersion can be defined as a cluster of solid creations made up of at least two distinguished components one being a hydrophobic drug and the other a hydrophilic matrix which can take any form depending on the crystalline or amorphous nature of the solids used (see figure 1). In the context of pharmaceuticals, this technology was developed to help improve the solubility and bioavailability of oral drugs. Studies have indicated that a score of patients prefers oral drugs for their simplicity in administration hence they show more compliance in comparison to other types of drugs administered in different Continue reading...
How Lift Is Produced Essay Examples
People have been using lift for already more than a hundred years. Lift – is a component of the aerodynamic force which is perpendicular to the vector of the velocity of the motion of an object in the steam of liquid or of a gas which results from asymmetry of the body flow by a stream. It occurs at the motion of any object in the air, if the object has a shape conducive to this (the wing, for example).
Air flow around the wing is divided into two streams: over the wing and under it. Lower flow steams in Continue reading...
Good Research Proposal About Field-Effect Transistor-Based Biosensors
Proposal for enhancing the sensor performance or make nanowire sensor more selective and sensitive for cancer cells or for DNA.
An experiment to show how different amount of estrogen receptors requires detailed and sensitive procedures to reveal the difference between subtle in DNA binding affection. Si-NW biosensors better exposure in finding out nuclear withdrawals in cancerous cells. Extreme hypersensitive disclosure of protein-DNA synergy. A proposal in making Nanowire sensors being more selective and sensitive. Electrical implementation of Silicon-nanowire field-effect sensitive for usage in discovering cancer. Array relationship between receptors and nanowire sensors.
 Cancer detection or finding cure for DNA disease have become two of the famous areas in medicine, which scientists are likely to investigate in. Cancer Continue reading...