Protein synthesis is the process through which the biological cells produce new protein molecules. The process helps in balancing the cellular proteins that are lost through export or degradation. The synthesis of proteins occurs through a series of processes known as translation where the ribosomes are the organelles that are involved in the creation of proteins. Translation is a part of gene expression using the messenger RNA or mRNA that is produced through transcription of the DNA molecule. The produced mRNA is then decoded to produce a chain of specific amino acids using the ribosome complex. The amino acid Continue reading...
One paper in two versions
Try it with your WOW discount - 70% OFF the second version with extras.
Essays on Protein
Example Of Case Study On Dialysis Capd
A 36-year-old woman is married and has two adopted children. She is diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and she will soon have to go on dialysis or consent to a renal transplant.
1. What additional data should the nurse collect to help the patient make the best decision for herself?
The nurse would need to collect previous health records of the patient. Gathering information on the cause of kidney failure and the medications used would help the nurse analyze the health issue in a precise manner. Gathering information on the patient’s psychological health and family would help Continue reading...
Youre Name Case Study Examples
Marketing Plan for Coca Cola plus protein
Coca Cola is one of the biggest players of carbonated and non carbonated soft drink market in the world. It is one of the most valuable and iconic brands in the world; Forbes has listed Coca Cola as the world’s third most valuable brand (World’s Most Valuable Brands, 2014). It is one of those companies that invest heavily in its marketing initiatives. In 2013, the marketing spend of the company stood at $4 billion (Team Trevis, 2014). Coca Cola is a market leader of the soft drinks market and has a brand portfolio that included drinks Continue reading...
Sample Report On Separation Of The Catalytic And Hemopexin Domains From Mmp-1 By Nickel Affinity
Initially there were beliefs that, MMPs are jointly able to degenerate all constituents making up the extracellular matrix (ECM) together with basement membrane that confines their operations to tissue reconstruction as well as the preservation. Nonetheless, the contemporary studies also signify that MMP-1 is responsible for controlling the production or else the activation of the chemokines. At this point, it is critical to understand that MMP-1 is among other MMPs.
Similarly, the knowledge holds it that MMP- 1 cleaves a peptide bond beforehand a residue comprising of a hydrophobic adjacent chain, for instance Met and Leu. The other sideways Continue reading...
Example Of Short Questions Essay
Re-uptake involves the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by any of the neurotransmitter receptors or transporters. The transporters involved are usually of pre-synaptic neurons. Re-uptake occurs after the neurotransmitter has transmitted a neural impulse. Re-uptake is very crucial in order for the normal functioning of synapses to take place. This is because it allows the neurotransmitters to be recycled, thereby regulating their levels in the synapse. This in turn dictates the length of time it takes for a signal - generated by neurotransmitter release - to last. Neurotransmitters are usually large hydrophilic molecules that cannot pass through the neuronal membranes. For Continue reading...
Embryology Questions Essay Samples
- The stromal cells that are found in the developing gonads of tetrapods begin from the medulla from the peritoneal wall and the cortex from inter-renal blastema or mesonephric. Hence the gonads have a dual origin.
- Spermatogenesis occurs in a syncytial complex because it involves the formation of sperm from undifferentiated cells that are first attached to rachis. Syncytial cell complex or syncytium result when cells with single nuclei fuse to for a cell with nucleus. Syncytial cell complex is vital in oogenesis in that it assists in the differentiation of cells. One other developmental model is vitellogenesis.
Free Research Paper About Milk And Protein
Pasteurization is a process that involves heating of raw milk to a certain temperature within a given set of time. This process kills harmful bacteria found in unpasteurized milk, for example, Salmonella, Listeria and E coli responsible for food borne illnesses. These bacterial organisms are responsible for human diseases such as Typhoid, diphtheria, Listeriosis and tuberculosis. The process was first initiated by Louis Pasteur in the year 1864. Pasteurized milk can stay for a certain period without refrigeration. However, refrigeration especially after opening the seal, is still necessary because of some nonpathogenic bacteria that because food spoilage and is Continue reading...
Nutrition And Wound Healing Essays Examples
Consumption of 17g of arginine for two weeks has been found to enhance collagen production, according to a recent study (Crowe & Brockbank, 2009). But, what is a wound? Brown (2013) suggests that wounds are injuries on tissues or the skin, and are prominent in bony areas. Various factors contribute to the development of wounds, but this paper will evaluate the role of calorie malnutrition. This paper examines how high calorie diet promotes wound healing.
Enteral and oral nutritional support is of vital significance according to Crowe and Brockbank (2009). A randomized study that was centered on arginine analyzed how Continue reading...
Good Example Of Report On Electrophoresis Of Gfp
Aim: To separate Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) using poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE).
Introduction: Bioluminescence observed in many marine organisms is due to a protein called as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Since its discovery, GFP has been useful in biotechnology due to its versatility and ease of transformation in E. coli (Chalfie et al., 1994). GFP is a 26.87 kilodaltons (kD) protein composed of 239 amino acids. It has a barrel structure with a fluorescent chromophore embedded deep in the interior of the protein. The chromophores in GFP are excited at a wavelength of 395 nm, and when the electrons of chromophores drop to a lower energy state they emit fluorescent light Continue reading...
Free Critique Article Review Example
Connective tissue growth factor induces collagen I expression in human lung fibroblasts through the Rac1/MLK3/JNK/AP-1 pathway
Many lung inflammatory diseases present pulmonary fibrosis as one of the symptoms, which is characterized by shortness of breath, chronic coughing and discomfort in the chest. It causes modifications of the lung tissues due to overgrowth, hardening and scarring. This occurs mainly due to deposition of collagen, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, whose turnover is regulated by fibroblast. Fibroblast is an important cell regulator that is enlisted by a site of injury. This process is driven by release of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8/CXCL8.
Previously, fibroblast was thought to express no or very Continue reading...
Free Essay On Rett Syndrome
There are more than 5000 genetic disorders up to date. These genetic disorders are most evident at birth or during the onset of early childhood. This results to admission in different programs in rehabilitation centers, school programs in order to help the victims affected by such conditions. These disorders can primarily affect the body system, muscles and the respiratory system.
One such disorder is the Rett syndrome. Rett Syndrome is a phenotypically distinct progressive X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder that affects females (Volkmar et al, 2007). There are different types of Rett syndrome. These include the classical Rett syndrome, provisional Continue reading...
Free Three Day Food Intake: Macronutrition Intake And Modification Essay Sample
Recorded intake of macronutrient. Based on my daily intake of recorded foods, foods that provided proteins include chicken, beans, dairy (including yoghurt and milk), egg, bread etc. Carbohydrates were provided by bread, pasta, cereal, dairy, beans and fruits. Lipids or fats were provided by chicken and dairy, eggs and the oil that was used in preparation of food.
Based on the three day recorded protein intake the amount of carbohydrate and protein (approximately 55 gm protein and approximately 180-200 gm carbohydrates) compared well with the recommended dietary reference intake for an adult. However the level of lipids or fats Continue reading...
Digestion And Metabolism Research Papers Example
Digestion occurs in the gastrointestinal system, which is composed of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and the associated accessory organs.The process of digestion occurs through six steps, namely ingestion, secretion, mixing,digestion, absorption and defecation. (Tortora&Derrickson, 2008).
Anatomy of the digestive system
The GI tract or the alimentary canal is a long winding tube that measures approximately 30 feet (9 meters) in length. The mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and the anus make up the GI tract.The salivary glands, tongue, teeth, gallbladder, pancreas and the liver make up the associated accessory organs (Tortora&Derrickson, 2008).
The mouth. The mouth starts with the Continue reading...
Material Methods Essay Example
- Cell Culture and Cell Lines:
Three breast cancer cell lines: CAL120, EVSAT and MDA-MB-231, were cultured individually, in RRMI 1640 supplemented with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 100U/ml Penicillin, 100U/ml Streptomycin and L-Glutamine. The cells were cultured and maintained in an incubator at 370C supplied with 5% CO2. For subsequent experiments, the cells were further cultured till confluence, in 6 well and 96 well plates using RPMI+20%FBS.
1.2 Treatment of Cells:
For treatment, 1x106 cells were seeded in 6 well culture plates, and incubated for 24 hrs. After 24 hours, the old media was replaced with Continue reading...
Free Essay On Genetic Code Homology
With reference to Biological studies, homology is the presence of shared pedigree between living organisms in terms of evolution. The homology might be in terms of genetical constitution, or physical constitution, to name a few. Here, I have described the evolutionary homology between various phyla supporting the description with a phylogenetic tree.
Genetic code is the combination of DNA and RNA sequences that constitute the amino acid sequences used in the synthesis of an organism's proteins. It is the biochemical basis of heredity and generally, protein coding amino acids is very similar in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The principle Continue reading...
Comparison Of Homological Features Of 22 Different Organisms Essays Examples
The study explored the homological characteristics of 22 species. The organisms were human, pygmy chimpanzee, common chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, white-handed gibbon, macaque (Cercopithecine monkey), horse, bison, cat, dog, bird, bat, frog, rattlesnake, alligator, fish, whale, wolf, pig, bacteria, and cow. The species were categorized as mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, or amphibians. However, humans and apes were further classified as primates. Moreover, the research sought to determine whether the species share characteristics that link them to a common ancestor. The research hypothesis was that if the evolutionary path of the 22 organisms were traced, then a common ancestor would be Continue reading...
Example Of Post Laboratory Report: Determination Of Protein Concentration Essay
One of the most important part of protein assay is the determination of protein concentration. There are diverse methods used for protein concentration determination, but the most widely used are the spectroscopic methods of analysis or spectroscopy. Spectroscopy usually involves the determination between the correlations of the degree of interaction of light with the analyte, which is the proteins in this particular experiment. There are different types light to analyte interactions and one of these is the absorbance of light or electromagnetic radiation by the analyte. This type of spectrometry is called absorbance spectrometry.
Principle involved in absorbance spectrometry and spectrometers
The majority of substances absorb Continue reading...
Good Article Review On A Brief Overview Of HIV Virology And Pathogenetic Mechanisms
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, a main cause of worldwide AIDs, belongs to the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family. Pathogen causes chronic type of symptoms, taking a long time of latency it constantly keeps replicating inside human body. HIV is categorised into two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2. The genome of this retrovirus consists of two single-stranded RNA molecules. Though, both are involved in AIDS, HIV-2 seemed less virulent and demonstrated more frequent connections with the disease of central nervous system (Fanales-Belasio et al. 5).
Like other retroviruses, the genes located on HIV chromosome are gag, pol, env. The functions of gag, Continue reading...
Free Obesity Thesis Proposal Sample
Obesity refers to the condition of having more than average fatness that is different from being overweight, which is the condition of having too much weight. This increase in weight mostly comes from bone, muscle, fat, and body water. Obesity is a global problem, and its prevalence has approximately doubled between 1980 and 2008. Nearly, 2.8 million people die annually due to the problem of being overweight or obese (World Health Organization (WHO), (n.d.). Australia has reportedly highest rates of obesity in the world. Nearly quarter of the children in Australia and 63% of the adult population are overweight Continue reading...
Good Similarities And Differences Article Review Example
The two articles focus on researches that were conducted so as to get some viable findings that involved analyzing the effects of amino acids and carbohydrates of muscular adaptations under different circumstances.
In the research by Ferreiraa et al. (2014), the most beneficial strategy of improving the performance of muscles is through the intake of nutrients, especially carbohydrates and protein during peri-exercise. Several methods and materials were used before coming to this conclusion. The methods used were supplementation protocol, experimentation approach and pretesting analysis. Resistance exercise protocol, muscle biopsies and blood sampling were highly employed in the Continue reading...
Free Human Protein Xpa Research Paper Example
Human XPA is a protein engaged in DNA damage recognition and repair. A mutation in the gene encoding the protein causes an autosomal recessive disorder, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which renders an individual sensitive to sunlight and causes skin cancer. XPA is a 273 amino acid protein, which is predominantly localized in the nucleus. It is expressed at both high and moderate levels in several tissues. The protein serves as a damage sensor in a nucleotide excision repair mechanism, through which the damage to a DNA strand is verified and repaired by formation of a newly synthesized strand. Besides this Continue reading...
Free Essay On Membrane Transport
Membrane transport refers to the mechanisms by which ions and other small molecules move across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane allows the passage of certain molecules down their concentration gradient. This passage depends on the charge, size and polarity of the molecule. Non-polar molecules and small polar molecules diffuse easily across the cell membrane by the process of simple diffusion. However, it becomes difficult for charged polar molecules to enter the cell even though the concentration of the ion is more outside the cell when compared to the cytosol. At Continue reading...
Good Research Paper About Recommended Level Of Macronutrient Intake For Harvey Kent
Harvey requires enough energy to perform. Consequently, he must consume enough calories to meet all his energy needs. The actual requirement for calorie intake depends on one’s level of fitness and bodyweight. In addition, the intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activity also greatly influence one’s actual energy requirement.
Given that Harvey’s daily workouts involve high-intensity activities, his calorie intake should comprise of between55 to 70 percent carbohydrates. In this case, 3 grams per pound of body weight would be appropriate. Based on this recommendation, Harvey should consume approximately 480 grams of carbohydrates per day in Continue reading...
Enzymes Activity Essay Sample
Enzymes are proteins which have the ability to facilitate metabolic reactions without being used up in the reaction. The enzyme amylase is responsible for facilitating the hydrolysis of starch to form sugars that are then assimilated by the body. Amylase is an enzyme needed for the digestion of carbohydrates for nutritional purposes. Starch is one of the most important sources of energy in the body. Starch is a polymer made up of several monosaccharide and disaccharide monomers. However, starch cannot be absorbed and used in the body as it is (Cornish-Bowden, 134). Consequently, it has to be digested into Continue reading...
Sample Research Paper On Cell Adhesion Molecules
Cells are independent units of life. However, when a cell becomes part of an organism, it becomes part of a tissue and organ system. Cells in a tissue are joined to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM) by cell junctions. There are three kinds of cell junctions: Occluding junctions, anchoring junctions and communication junctions. Occluding junctions occur in the epithelium where the adjacent cells are so tightly sealed together that even small molecules cannot pass. Communicating junctions allow the exchange of chemical and electrical signals between cells. Anchoring junctions are the ones which attach a cell either Continue reading...
Human Evasion By Virus Essay Sample
The immune system has an immune arsenal that help in the combat of infections including the challenging viral infections (Iannello 2006). Upon infection by a virus, the host invariably reacts by activating its line of defenses. These immune defenses can fall into two main groups: the innate immune system (first line of defense) and adaptive immune response. The innate immune system is non-specific in nature, but the adaptive immune system is acquired following previous infections or vaccinations (Iannello 2006). However, viruses continue to undergo an evolution and have engineered strategies that evade the hosts’ immune antiviral responses. This paper Continue reading...
Bioinformatics Research Paper Samples
In recent times, there has been a rapid growth in the amount of data generated and collected on the human genome project and sequencing projects in other organisms. The rapid growth of biological data has consequently led to increased demand for data analysis and interpretation methods and tools. The evolving science of bioinformatics provides the necessary processes and tools to conduct this data analysis (Bayat, 2002). There are a number of specifically dedicated bioinformatics problem-solving tools and successful applications. However, despite the many existing applications, bioinformatics is still considered as a science in its infancy, and the process of Continue reading...
Does Nutrition Help In Wound Healing Research Paper Sample
Adequate nutrition is required for optimal wound healing. The normal processes that allow the progress of wound healing are disrupted due to nutritional deficiencies. Increased infection rates and decreased wound tensile strength are associated with malnutrition. Chronic on-healing wounds are formed in malnourished patients or individuals. Such patients can develop infections, pressure ulcers, and delayed wound healing. Morbidity and mortality among malnourished patients with chronic wounds constitute a serious clinical concern. Wound healing is considered as a complex process. It is the process of replacing injured tissue with new tissue (produced by the body). Production of new tissue is Continue reading...
Biotechnology And Recombinant DNA Essay
The term biotechnology refers to any process that involves biology and technology. Though the term was coined as far back as 1919 by Karl Ereky (Verma et al., 2011), biotechnology was established as a field of applied science only in the late twentieth century with the advent of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA technology is the generation and application of recombinant DNA molecules or rDNA. In a nutshell, recombinant DNA technology involved the cutting of a fragment of DNA and its insertion into a specific circular DNA molecule called a vector. The DNA is cut by enzymes called restriction Continue reading...
Good Essay About Biology
Regulation of Xiap Protein in Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the breast. Two most commonly reported types of breast cancer are “ductal carcinoma” and “lobular carcinoma”. Ductal carcinoma is initiated in the lining of the milk ducts, which are thin tubes involved in carrying of milk from lobules of the breast to the nipple. Ductal carcinoma can be in the form of Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) as well as Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). IDC is the most commonly found type of breast cancer with nearly Continue reading...
Good Essay On 4 Questions For Final
- Describe the role of the following in protein synthesis - DNA, nucleotides, RNA, ribosomes, rough ER, and Golgi apparatus.
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a double stranded hereditary molecule containing the genetic code from which specific protein molecules are synthesized. First step in protein synthesis is synthesis of single stranded complementary RNA. RNA also contains all the components of DNA except a ribose sugar. Special RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the message to ribosomes. Under mRNA’s direction, transfer RNA (tRNA) delivers amino acids to ribosomes and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) attaches each amino acid to form the final Continue reading...
Structure And Function Of Cytoplasmic Actin Essays Example
As a multi-functional protein, Cytoplasmic Actin can be found in all eukaryotic cells at higher concentration levels of over 100 μM. It is the most abundant protein found in most eukaryotic cells, which makes it a critical player in different cellular functions, such as maintaining cell shape and polarity to transcription regulation. The structure of Cytoplasmic Actin is distinguished by a large number of polymorphic proteins which form the filaments. In eukaryotic organisms, such as archaea and eubacteria, actin-like proteins activities are related to sub-cellular organization, motility, cell shape maintenance and cell cycle progression; they are either associated to Continue reading...
Example Of Literature Review On Bacillus Anthracis: Understanding The Spore Protein For Vaccine Development
Bacteria are the very first life forms in the history of our planet. Since the beginning they were exposed to extreme changes of temperature, pressure, pH and nutrients; hence, to survive, they had to adapt themselves. One strategy of survival is to go into suspension or dormancy, by converting themselves into a seed form or spores. When conditions become normal, these spores germinate back to vegetative form. This property is also seen in pathogenic bacteria that infect higher animals such as humans. One such group of bacteria is from the Genus Bacillus.When exposed to stress, these bacteria go into Continue reading...
Example Of Structure And Function Of Cytoplasmic Actin Essay
Structure and Functions of Cytoplasmic Actin
Cytoplasmic actins refers to the conserved proteins. Actin can be found in all eukaryotic cells, and are involved in variety of cell motility. Protein structure is formed by combination of variety of amino acids by losing the molecule of water. Proteins get involved into variety of biological functions, and proteins have different types of structures depending upon the requirements. This paper intends to discuss different types of protein structures, their functions and other related aspects.
The structure of proteins can be divided into three categories i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary. The structures of proteins are polypeptides-sequences that get formed Continue reading...
Good Example Of Essay On A Gene Of Unknown Function In The Mouse Genome Was Examined. In A Reverse Genetics
Investigating the Functions of Proteins
The steps made so far in the process of gene mapping has opened up ways in which more studies are done on the human DNA. ENCODE and Genome researchers have so far sequenced more than 90 genomes. With the understanding of genes and their loci, it has been easier to locate and carry out studies on a single gene. Most genes code for various proteins in the body of an organism; it has become paramount that the roles of these genes be identified and prescribed out. The knowledge of the functions of each gene, or the protein it codes Continue reading...
Without Kicking Urge Essay Samples
Proteomics is the study of proteins in terms of their structures and functions. The term proteome refers to the entire set of proteins modified of produced by the organism. However, the interactions and modifications tend to vary with time and their distinct requirements and environmental stresses that the organism undergoes. This is an interdisciplinary domain based on research studies originally on yeast, then mice. Experiments have been forwarded describing the ways of investigating genetic interactions and various aspects of different functional proteins in genes. This essay proposes experiments that would be used to investigate a particular gene (named Without Continue reading...
Good Diet Analysis Report Example
Question 2: How many serves of each of the five food groups and discretionary foods did you have on average across your two days? Comment on how this intake compares to the recommended serves listed in the Australian Dietary Guidelines appropriate to your age and gender? Which foods contributed most to your intake, or were missing from your intake if you ate minimal serves from a particular food group? (600 words)
Across the two days, each of the food category was only served once with an exception of whole meal bread (carbohydrate and dietary fiber) and chicken-meat (hem protein), Continue reading...
Good Essay About Crystal Structure Of The -Opioid Receptor Bound To A Morphinan Antagonist
Opioids such as codeine and morphine, are the active pharmaceutical ingredients of many drugs such as pain relievers (analgesics), cough suppressants, sedatives, etc. Opioids are derivatives of opium and bind to the μ-opioid receptor (μOR). The coupling of the μOR to Gi, the inhibitory subunit of the G-protein, blocks the activation of adenylyl cyclase and results in the analgesic effect. The opioid receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily and specifically to the rhodopsin-like family A. These receptors consist of two closely related members, namely, δOR and κOR (Manglik et al. 2012, p. 322). The Continue reading...
The Regulation Of Cell Signaling By Adaptor Cells Essay Samples
Part 1: Summary
Signaling pathway is a series of biochemical events initiated, after a cell receives extraneous stimuli, by factors such as hormones. The activation of the adapter proteins turns on the connections among the pathways and allows the signal transfer (Flynn). The adaptor protein Crk, for example, influences the physiology of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Many proteins regulate the off and on states by shifting between the trans and cis configurations of a proline switch. In Crk, the cis-trans isomerization modulates the proline switch. The switch is off in the cis state, and the Crk protein is inactive. The switch, however, Continue reading...
Free Dissertation Proposal About Effects Of Set1 Protein On Meiosis In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an organism that can exist either as a singled-cell organism or as pseudomycelia. It is used in many scientific studies. It is commonly known as baker’s yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely employed in scientific studies mainly due to the following reasons: it has a sequenced genome, it is easy to maintain in the lab, researchers can easily manipulate its genetics, and it grows rapidly. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can live with two genomes (diploid, n=32) or one genome (haploid, n=16). Consequently, the organism can undergo meiotic differentiation. In diploid phase, cells of the saccharomyces cerevisiae are more Continue reading...