Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which the kidneys lose their function over time. It is a state of irreversible kidney damage. The adverse outcomes of chronic kidney disease result in kidney failure, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Effective treatment at the early stages of the disease reduces the chances of other complications. The two major causes of chronic kidney disease are high blood pressure and diabetes. The common symptoms of the disease are fatigue, swollen feet and ankles, dry, itchy skin, frequent urination, poor appetite and concentration .
The classification of chronic kidney disease involves five stages. Stage 1 ...