Mark’s Total Cholesterol is below 186mg/dl and that is good, as it is under the 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or less that is a desirable level. His HDL cholesterol that protects against heart disease is 45mg/dL under the 60 mg/dL considered optimal but above the 40 mg/dL considered low. However, it is close and he needs counseling to raise it. His LDL cholesterol of 119mg/dL is within the near optimal range of 100 to 129 mg/dL This LDL level is higher than the American mean level of 115 md/dL and Mark should work to reduce it. His Continue reading...
Essays on Sodium
Fluid And Electrolyte Balance Essay Samples
Extracellular fluid and Intracellular fluid
Water represents 60% of body weight in males and 50% in females. However, this water contains a lot of soluble substances. The total body water in the body is divided into intracellular and extracellular.
Intracellular fluid is the liquid contained inside the cell membrane. It comprises of approximately 25-40 litres of fluid.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) includes all the fluid present outside the cells. The total amount of ECF is approximately 14 litres in a 70 kg person. Depending upon the location in the body, ECF is divided into the interstitial fluid, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, intraocular fluid, lymph, gastrointestinal fluid Continue reading...
Sample Report On Tittle: Determine The Concentration Of A Solution Of Potassium Iodate Using Redox
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Titration is a volumetric analysis used to determine the quantity and concentration of an unknown or known substance. Redox titration involves the use of reducing and oxidising agents as the reactants. Some redox reactions can be performed without necessarily adding an indicator since the reagents used change in colour at the end point: they are self-indicating.
Potassium iodate is an ionic compound whose molecule is made of the atoms of potassium, iodine, and oxygen. Its chemical formula is KIO3 and its mass number is 214 g mol-1 (Clark, 2000, P. 79). It is also a strong oxidising agent Continue reading...
Example Of Research Paper On Roles Of Potassium In Regulating Blood Flow And Blood Pressure
Available empirical evidence and facts points to the direction that potassium is a critical component in the human body as a regulator of blood pressure. The above stems from surveys and data recorded over a cross-sectional spectrum of the human population to the effect that areas and regions that take less of potassium have a likelihood of suffering blood pressure-related complications. It is to say that people who take less of potassium have a higher prevalence and prospects of getting hypertension. This logic is true and possible since the ion present in Potassium are unique and provide some functions Continue reading...
Photosynthesis Lab Assignment Essay
Photosynthesis refers to the process where plant utilize sunlight energy to transform carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugar (Lehninger, Nelson, & Cox, 2008). The photosynthesis process can be illustrated using an equation as follows:
CO2 + H20→ +C6H12O6+O2
- If the leaves in a chamber containing sodium bicarbonate are placed in light bank then, the leaves will float.
- If the leaves in a chamber containing distilled water are placed in light bank then the leaves would not float
- If the leaves in a chamber containing sodium bicarbonate are placed in light bank then, the leaves will Continue reading...
Report On Procedure
Caffeine is present in tea leaves and can be readily extracted. This is the producer that was demonstrated in this laboratory experiment. In the laboratory experiment, the teabags were heated to ebullition for five minutes. The ebullition was sequenced by an extraction which applied dichloromethane. All of the washings occurred in a separator funnel. The residual substrate was subsequently evaporated up to the point of where the crude caffeine remained as a residual. Sublimation was applied in order to separate the purified caffeine from the crude caffeine. The mass of the sublimate is was 0.0035g. The percentage yield of Continue reading...
Food Journal Analysis Report Sample
Monitoring one’s diet is important since it informs dietary choices that one should make in order to achieve and maintain healthy lifestyle and good health. Therefore, I took part in recording my food intake and exercise habits for three weeks. Nutrition determines many aspects of human beings. As the common adage goes, ‘we are what we eat.’ This adage implies that what we eat defines many of our aspects. Nutrition is indispensable to human health. Similarly, physical exercise plays a major role in promoting good health. For instance, it improves general health and helps achieve glycemic control among Continue reading...
Free Essay On A Brief Narrative Of 2 Chapters
Chemicals in action
An acid and base reaction occurs when a complete exchange of electrons between the proton donor and proton acceptor occurs. In this process a salt if formed. In the definition, a salt is a substance formed from an acid by its replaceable hydrogen either wholly or partially by a metal or an equivalent radicle. Example of salt formation
In the modern ionic theory, a salt is a compound of oppositely charged ions. From this point of view, there is no difference between NaCl and NaOH. Further, anhydrous aluminum Continue reading...
Sample Report On Titration
An acid that gives two hydrogen ions for every acid molecule is known as diprotic acid. Examples of such acids are sulfuric acid (H2SO4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), oxalic acid (H2C2O4), chromic acid (H2CrO4) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). Dissociation of a diprotic acid in water takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the diprotic acid dissociates to give one hydrogen ion and a monoprotic form of the acid.
H2X(aq) H+(aq) + HX-(aq)
The second stage involves the dissociation of the monoprotic form of the acid to give the second hydrogen ion and fully dissociated form of Continue reading...
Biology Research Paper Sample
Testosterone is a hormone mostly found in men and is responsible for the manifestation of secondary male sexual characteristics. Testosterone is not a hormone exclusive to men.it can also be found in women but in very low quantities. Testosterone is also pivotal in bone production and the growth of muscles.it is also responsible for libido in men. Men in their twenties have the highest testosterone levels.at the age of thirty and above testosterone levels decrease at a rate of one percent per year. Hereditary disorders can also cause a downward trend in testosterone levels in men.as the levels of Continue reading...
Identification Of An Unknown Report Examples
Extraction, crystallization and melting point can be used as methods of separating mixtures. Extraction and melting points are employed on separating liquid-liquid mixtures whereas purification of elements utilizes crystallization as their method of separation with impurities. Separation of mixtures involves the distinction of the constituent elements of the mixture into their constituent elements. Separation of mixtures is based on characteristics of the constituent elements of the mixture. Chemical affinity and density are the most utilized properties in organic compound mixtures.
Methods of preparing the substance include the use of extraction from a mixture which is based on the principle Continue reading...
Example Of Literature Review On Carbon Di Oxide Capture
Carbon dioxide is the main byproduct in a brewery. Accordingly, we have identified source of carbon dioxide, as an exhaust gas produced in a brewery. This report explains how such a source of carbon dioxide can be harnessed for future use.
Air extraction technology to capture atmospheric carbon dioxide
We understand that due to excessive burning of fossil fuels there is abundance or more than expected amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Accordingly, carbon dioxide can be extracted from atmospheric conditions using various technologies. This technology of carbon dioxide capture is a step wise process, which is called air extraction (Zeman and Lackner, 2004). In this Continue reading...
Nai(TL) And CSI(TL) Crystals For Gamma Rays Article Review Sample
Purpose of the article
The article seeks to find out the average energy that is required for every scintillation photon as well as the energy resolutions present in crystals of sodium iodide that is activated with thallium and cesium iodide that is doped with thallium for gamma rays. Through this information, that author can comprehend the pathways that radiation energy to luminescence takes in scintillators. This information is important if one is to draw a comparison between scintillation yields from various scintillators. As such, this article adduces that the use of quantities that are related to scintillation efficiency is appropriate in understanding these Continue reading...
Nicolas Leblancs Baking Soda Biography Examples
Nicolas Leblanc, in 1791, gave the world a chemical compound which revolutionized food products, Sodium Bicarbonate. More commonly known as baking soda, this base has become an integral substance found in almost every household. Leblanc, a surgeon and private physician, was striving to make ends meet for his family when he heard about the prize offered by the French Academy of Science to anybody who can develop a process for producing soda ash from salt. The prize finally went to Leblanc, who had come up with the Leblanc process, which developed baking soda from seas salt and sulfuric acid. Continue reading...
Report On Chemistry : Solubility Product
When water is added to lead chloride, the solute sparingly dissolves with some undisclosed particles settling at the bottom of the beaker. Lead chloride is only sparingly soluble in water. When the dilute hydrochloric acid is added to the saturated solution of lead chloride, a white precipitate is formed. This is because of the common ion effect where the excess chloride ions from HCL cause lead chloride to precipitate.
Pb2+ aq + 2Cl-aq PbCl2 s
0.1M lead nitrate +0.1M sodium oxalate
Pb2+ (aq) +C2O42- (aq) PbC2O4(s)
Na+ (aq) + NO3-(a) NaNO3 (aq)
Lead nitrate + sulphuric acid
Pb2+ ( Continue reading...
Structure And Function Of The Kidney Case Study Sample
The body is made up of various organ systems which perform various functions. One of this is the urinary system which is responsible for excretion of various metabolic wastes. An important organ in the urinary system is the kidney. In the kidney, blood undergoes ultra filtration; nutrients such as glucose are reabsorbed back while waste products such as urea and excess water form urine which is excreted. The kidney maintains electrolyte and water balance in the body. During sustained physical activity, the body looses a lot of water through sweating. This disrupts the electrolyte balance in the body and Continue reading...
Example Of Materials Report
The ionic fluoride is like free fluoride ions, but in chemical terms they are really not free, but ionized. The fluoride in the water is just fluoride [in the ionic form]. The fluoride in the water does not know if it came from sodium fluoride or calcium fluoride or another fluoride compound (in the inorganic form, of course). Fluoridation does not affect the appearance, taste, or smell of drinking water. It is normally accomplished by adding one of three compounds to the water: sodium fluoride, fluorosilicic acid, or sodium fluorosilicate. Incidentally, tests that are taken to measure the concentration Continue reading...
Example Of Medicinal Chemistry Essay
Mechanism and Progress of Anti-Angiogenic Drugs
Cancers are one of the common and devastating conditions affecting human being for a long time. The landmarks and progress made in achieving consummate and effective drugs for the management of this conditions are worth mentioning. Researchers have embarked on finding solutions to the nagging issue of cancer among human beings, which are commonly based on the behavior of the mutant carcinogenic cells in the body. Understanding the environment that favor mutation and proliferation of mutate genes is a remarkable approach towards getting a long life solution. In this respect, it has been identified that targeting blood vessels development Continue reading...
Report On Saponification: Hoe To Make Soap
The purpose of this experiment is to prepare soap through the saponification process and use it to test water hardness.
The saponification process began by placing approximately 5 grams of lard in a beaker. 15 mL of sodium Hydroxide (6 M) was slowly and carefully added followed by an addition of 25 mL of ethanol. After adding ethanol, the beaker was heated while stirring until the base fully reacted with the lard. The result was a clear and homogenous solution. After cooling the solution, 20 mL of water was added. The next step involved the preparation of saturated Continue reading...
Green Cleaning Products Vs. Traditional Cleaning Product Essay Example
Traditional cleaning products are known to cause long term health problems to users or burn their skin and also surfaces. They often consist of chlorine bleach or ammonia and as we all know these chemicals are not only pungent but also acidic in nature. Furthermore these chemicals cause damage to the environment and water if they go down the drain by mistake.
Traditional cleaning products sometimes contain volatile organic compounds and when emitted in to the air they negatively impact to the environment and the people around it. It is very vital for one to maintain non polluted air Continue reading...
Report On Experiment-1: Measuring Volumes
The purpose of this experiment is to assist one to learn how different equipment in the laboratory is being use when carrying out the experiment. It tests the level of accuracy required when using different apparatus for measuring the volume. For very approximate result of volume, a beaker or conical flask is preferred when measuring volumes of liquids.
Accurate methods of measurement
This is done by the use of burette, conical flask and pipette. These measuring apparatus are discussed below.
When a much more accurate measurement is required, always measuring cylinders are preferred Measuring cylinders, which are much more accurate than beakers and Continue reading...
Research Paper On Platinum And Its Uses
I/We have been assigned one of the most expensive metals, Platinum. It has widely application in dental implants, automotive catalytic converters (Rao & Reddi, 2000), biomedical implants such as catheters, stents, cardiac implants (Cowley & Woodward, 2011), manufacturing of optical glass, manufacturing of fuel cells (McDonald & Hunt, 1982) and jewelry.
Platinum ore deposits
Platinum ore contains palladium, iridium, rhodium, osmium and ruthenium, along with platinum. Platinum ore forms a) Placer deposits: Placer deposits are formed by water-based erosion of sedimentary rocks containing the ore (Example. Ural-Alaskan type). b) Layered igneous lode deposits: Such deposits are emplaced on stable cratons. Examples: South Africa as the Continue reading...
Case Study On Fluid And Electrolyte Balance
- Sodium imbalance
The normal range for serum sodium levels in adults and older children is 137 to 145 millimoles per litre. A person with more than 145 millimoles of sodium per litre is said to have hypernatremia. A person with less than 137 millimoles per liter is said to have hyponatremia.
George’s sodium imbalance could be as a result of lung carcinoma which he suffers from. Lung carcinoma is known to cause syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone. This syndrome results in the abnormal secretion of anti-diuretic hormone. The increase in the levels of anti-diuretic hormone results Continue reading...
The Provides A Comprehensive Description Of The Family As Well As The Family Report
The objective of this laboratory work is to gain an insight in the trends of both chemical and physical properties of elements across the periodic table. The experiments offer an opportunity to subject the elements to the same chemical conditions and observe the reactions. Moreover, the relationship of the chemical properties and the location in the periodic table is pertinent. The location of an element in the periodic table is determined by its family or group and period.
The procedure followed for the different experiments involved combustion and reaction with water. For combustion the element would be brought Continue reading...
Example Of Report On Alum From Aluminum Cans
Alum is a double salt that is obtained from aluminum. It is used in pickling process and the dying of various fabrics by recycling aluminum useful products can be obtained from previous material generally regarded as refuse.
Aluminum foil, aqueous solution of KOH
Dissolve aluminum foil in hot aqueous solution of KOH.
The solution will acidify until a precipitate will be recovered (alum)
Re-crystallize the precipitate to eliminate impunities.
- Na + O2→Na2O2
- Na2O2 +2H2O→H2O2+2NaOH
- Cesium would be more reactive than sodium.
- 2Mg + O2→2MgO
- Magnesium oxide + water →Mg( Continue reading...
There Are Nine Variants Of The Alpha Subunit They Are Names Nav11 To Nav19 Essay Example
Discuss in detail the mechanism of action of named antiepileptic agents with reference to the relative clinical success of a particular mechanism in the treatment of epilepsy
Carbamazepine is a Sodium channel Blocker. It is the major first line antiepileptic drug. It is used for the treatment of partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Carbamazepine blocks sodium channels during rapid, sustained neuronal firing. It also prevents post-tetanic potentiation.
Phenytoin is also another first-line drug for the treatment of partial and secondary generalized seizures. Its mechanism of action is to block the movement of ions through the sodium channels during Continue reading...
Example Of Division And Classification Essay Essay
One of the ironies about living in one of the most prosperous nations in the world is the large amounts of unhealthy food that consumers eat, particularly in restaurants. Sodium is one of the primary culprits in the American diet; the amount of sodium in the food that we are served in restaurants can cause high blood pressure and can lead to kidney stones and other disorders. However, in addition to the restaurants and factories that pack entrees and prepared foods with sodium, there are also plenty of sources for food with moderate and even low sodium for Americans Continue reading...
Course Work On Volumetric Pipettes
A pipette is one of the laboratory instruments utilized in the transportation of a measured volume of fluids. Therefore, the general use of a pipette is to transfer a specific volume of a fluid from one container (measuring cylinder) to another. There are several types of pipettes. They include; Volumetric, graduated, automated pipettes, micropipettes and disposable pipettes. But for the sake of the video, we will concentrate of two: Volumetric and graduated pipettes.
These pipettes are used to transport a single specific volume of a fluid, typically between 1 and 100 ml. They are shaped like Continue reading...
Hypertension In African-American Women Research Papers Examples
Hypertension is a silent killer that afflicts over 77 million people in USA. The prevalence of this disease is higher among African-Americans than other ethnic groups. Especially, more than half of the population of African-American women suffers from hypertension and the associated disorders. Apart from genetic factors, a slew of environmental factors including obesity and lack of activity, diabetes, poor diet, alcohol consumption and stress are contributive to this growing phenomenon among black women. This paper has discussed this issue in more detail along with the recommended interventions necessary to keep this condition under check.
Hypertension is a debilitating Continue reading...
Example Of Sodium Essay
With close to 2.8% of the earth’s crust consisting of sodium in compounds, Sodium is by no doubt one of the most abundant elements on earth. The element has an atomic mass of about 22.98 amu and belongs to period 3 Group 1 (1A) (between Lithium and potassium) hence has an atomic number of 11, a valance of 1 and an oxidation state of +1. The Latin name for the symbol of Sodium is Natrium hence the symbol Na while the “Sodium” in Latin is referred to as Sodanum. Additionally, even though the element has Continue reading...
Example Of Research Paper On Strategies On Controlling Hypertension
SOC313: Social Implications of Medical Issues
Hypertension contributes to a number of diseases. As per studies about 26% people of the world totaling about 1 billion in number are afflicted with hypertension (Kearney et. al). Since a large segment of the world population is expected to grow older by 2025, hypertension is likely to increase in the world within next 15 years. In the US, currently a recorded number of 73 million people are suffering from hypertension. Hypertension is regarded as the silent killer because people suffering from it do not show any external symptoms. Hypertension hardens arteries resulting in the higher risk for Continue reading...
Urinary Endocrine And Nervous Control Essay
a) Explain why the effort of hormonal (Endocrine ) control tends to be slow whereas nervous control is usually very fast.
Endocrine control is normally slower when compared to nervous control majorly because hormones once released by the endocrine gland have to travel via the circulation to reach their target receptors on the effector organ which generally takes more time. Meanwhile, information relayed by nerves is in form of impulses (that is, action potentials generated due to electrical excitation produced by a change in the charge across the surface membrane of the neuron evoked by the stimuli) that simply travel Continue reading...
2014 Research Papers Example
MANAGEMENT OF ASCITES IN MALE ADULT PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS
(Name of Student)
For the Degree of
(NAME OF SCHOOL)
Ascites, the most common liver cirrhosis complication, affected approximately 85% of liver cirrhosis patients in the United States in the last 10 years. The development of ascites signifies an important landmark in the disorder that is associated with a 50% mortality rate (Gines, Quintero, Arroyo, Teres et al, 1987). It also indicates a need for liver transplantation as a surgical treatment. In UK, the true incidence and prevalence of ascites may be unknown, but its mortality has rate has increased to 12.7/100000 from 6/100000 (Fisher, Hanson, Phillips et al 1993-2000).
The Continue reading...
Chemistry Course Work
Because of its ubiquitous nature, water, stands out as a pertinent necessity for life. Virtually every single cell requires water for nourishment and for elimination of toxic substances. To perform such life dependent duties, water is endowed with exceptionally unique properties; properties that range from its heat and electrical conductivities, anomalous expansion to its density, viscosity and most importantly its impeccable dielectric strength in addition to its polarity that gives it the ability to dissolve a plethora of compounds that cannot be dissolved by other solvents.
One of the most significant unique properties of water is its polarity. Continue reading...
Biology Answers Essay Example
Lesson 5 Answers:
24.) Plants are classified into four major groups: Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and lastly the Angiosperms. Bryophytes are the plants that do not have true vascular systems, which consist of the xylem and the phloem. In this group, includes the mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Together, they are considered as land plants that reproduce their own asexually by producing spores. Spores are produced in the ‘sporangium’ (plural sporangia), a bulb-like structure located at the top of the stalk. It can only be seen through the use of high powered microscope. Because they lack vessels that can bring the nutrients from the Continue reading...
Free Overweight And Obesity Essay Example
Obesity and overweight have been classified as global and serious conditions that have an adverse effect on the human health. Obesity and overweight conditions are defined as excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat that may negatively affect health. In adults the obesity and overweight are measured by the body mass index (BMI), which is simple weight-for-height index (WHO, 2014). The BMI is computed by the ratio of the individual's body weight to the square of body height, indicated in Kg/m2 (WHO, 2014). According to W.H.O., (World Health Organisation), a BMI equal or above 25 is considered as overweight while Continue reading...
Junk Food As A Catalyst For Obesity In Americans And How It Can Be Avoided Research Paper
Have you ever faced a situation where you have to choose between preparing a healthy meal and going to a fast food restaurant? Millions of Americans face this decision on a daily basis and the impact of their choices has become apparent over the last three decades. In the 1970s, the number of fast food restaurants doubled according to the Census of Retail Trade (Chou, Grossman, and Saffer). Since the same period, obesity and obesity related diseases increased rapidly in the U.S. Today, junk food is prevalent in our culture and is commonly found in fast food restaurants like Continue reading...
Example Of Pharmacy Essay
Tabex is a Bulgarian drug that can be used to stop smoking. The drug is prepared from an alkaloid containing plant scientifically referred to as Cytisus laborium L. which is trivially called “Golden Rain acacia” (tabex.net, n.d). As reported on the tabex website, studies have shown that the drug has been successful in helping over 57% of tobacco users using it to stop smoking. Ideally, cystine has been used as a smoking-cessation for several years even though it was until recently that the alkaloid was subjected to clinical studies that have verified the notion that the alkaloid Continue reading...
Biotechnology Lab Report Examples
Analysis of Culture Cell KU812F with Three Protocols
Protein analysis for cancer cell research has been found to be extremely reliable. The culture cell KU812F (chronicle myeloid leukemia cell line) was used for this laboratory. Globin gene switching was observed by evaluating the gene expression in the cells. Gene expression and protein folding were provoked. Gene expression is the process of transcribing DNA to cDNA and then used qPCR to study gene expression. cDNA was translated into mRNA which in turn is translated into a protein. mRNA concentration was analyzed. The three protocols were Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Enzyme-Linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), and Continue reading...
Element Bond Research Paper
A mixture is a substance that has molecules of different types. Constituents of mixtures could be either elements or compounds. The different constituents of a mixture exist together in a state whereby they are in contact with one another. However, they do not combine chemically. In addition, the individual constituents of a mixture retain their individual physical properties even after forming the mixture. It is possible to separate a mixture into its constituent elements by physical or mechanical means. The melting and boiling points of a mixture are not definite. They range from one figure to another. It is Continue reading...