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Originally, 3D printing technologies were designed for nonbiological materials, such as metals, ceramics and thermoplastic polymers (Murphy and Atala 6). However, recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells, and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues, giving rise to a new technology referred to as ‘3D Bioprinting.’ However, unlike non-biological 3D printing, it involves important complexities, such as choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues (Murphy and Atala 1). Overall, 3D ...