Is Evolution True?
Is Evolution True?
Development can be defined as the fundamental process whereby species that are new develop from earlier species through accumulated changes. Sometimes an evolution is described as "descent with modification". As this process of speciation continues to take place, many species start to appear thus becoming increasingly different, and this continues over time and becomes a pattern. Through many observations of the changes in life forms over time, these models have been developed. Charles Darwin explains that the mechanism on hoe evolution occurs is by natural selection. Having constantly been observed, natural selection role in being the core driving force in evolution has been tested after being found and gone through challenges in different ways but has survived. There has not been any record of the mechanism at work in evolution and any critics always turn out to be without merit. Natural selection is a scientific theory of evolution and holds high status of certainty. We can, therefore, say evolution is scientifically demonstrated by facts that refer to described or observed natural phenomena.
Development can be described as not to being many things. Evolution is not a theory. Having been observed directly and having extension to life, it has evidence of existence and evidence against it is absent thus being a fact. Evolution is not based on faith, but science thus it is not something that one believes. It is not based on a life and its origin but it entails the source of various species and not human alone. Evolution is based on critical analysis and scientific observation thus being another way to making sense of the world apart from religion thus not being in conflict with worship. Science cannot explain whether or not God took part in an evolution thus not denying the existence of God. Evolution and sense explain the different observations of life that have no consistency with traditional explanation can be derived out of this thus evolution was not contrived for the purpose of undermining religion. In addition to these, evolution has no evidence against it.
Evolutionary theory can be tested using the six tenets presented by Darwinism for testable predictions. These do not predict what happens in the future by evolving, but it predicts what we can unfold in ancient or living species after studying them. One is by being able to find evolutionary change evidence in fossils records since these fossils are present. By studying the fossils, we should see evolve over time in the different fossils forming lineages that show descent with modification. Second we should find speciation cases from fossils records whereby a line of descent divides into two or even more thus finding new species in the wild. Third is that we should find types of species that link each other in major groups that are suspected to be having common ancestry. The missing links are to occur in rocks` layers dating to the time of divergence in the group. Fourth is that we should see how the various species differ and have genetic variation in different traits. Fifth is that the mark of evolution is imperfection. We should find cases of imperfect adaptation whereby evolution has not achieved the same level of optimality as would any creator. Sixth is that there should be evidence in the wild that proofs natural selection.
There are various predictions and explanation when you compare evolution and philosophical reflections on a development. Evolution is sometimes criticized that it is not a predictive science and that it has no natural laws. According to the philosophy, predictions should have deductive consequence of any pure theory plus proper measurements. Evolution then cannot predictions using these criteria, and one can critic it and say it is not an exact science. I can argue that this point of view of scientific explanation cannot affect an evolution. Evolution is very sensitive to the boundary conditions and initial conditions that develop during evolution. One cannot determine with accuracy the kind of mutations expected. For example, in a species over time. Though neglected for a very long time, evolutionary thinking is now receiving emphasis in social sciences. The basic concepts of evolution like selection and variations have meaningful applications in sociology. Therefore a distinction should be made between evolutionary processes and development processes. In sociology there are two main approaches characterizing evolutionary thinking that include sociobiological explanation and evolutionary accounts of the interaction of culture and genes. The new sociological theories are integrating macro and micro processes, reconciling ideas of structure and agency and linking biology to sociology without misleading a reductionism. Most sociologists share a combination of ignorance of and hostility to evolution with other social scientists. Although the science is progressing each and every day, and we know it is an ongoing process, theology has not, theologians themselves are not sure of how many gods exist. The only progress made is being forced by science.
According to this book, there is evidence all over the face of the earth that suggest, and proof evolution is real. One of the evidence is the fossils discovered on earth. We can, therefore, say that evolution is written all over in the rocks. Fossils are formed in a very simple way. The remains of plants and animals find a way into deep water where sediment covers them, and they thus don't get scattered. Scientists have discovered enough fossils to explain how evolution proceeded and also illustrate how major groups of species split from one another. There is no evidence of creationism in fossils that suddenly species appeared and remained the same. Instead, fossils show that through evolution sequence, there is a record of life forms appearing then evolution and split.
Remnants can also be used to proof the existence of evolution. That included bad design, vestiges and embryos. Vestiges can be described as features of a species, adapting from its ancestors, which have either been co-opted to be used in new functions or has lost its usefulness wholly. It is vestigial because it does not perform the function in which it evolved for and not because is functionless. An example is the appendix. It merely shows the remnant of an individual organ that was relevant to the leaf-eating ancestors, but in a real sense have no value to us, and this is evidence for evolution. In atavism, sometimes we see a person being born with an anomaly that resembles an ancestral trait. For example, a baby born with a tail. For the dead genes, we find genes that once were important, but are no longer expressed or intact. The evidence of evolution here is that you can find a dead gene in one species but find it active in related relatives of the species.
The geography of life is another aspect described in the book that helps us understand an evolution and how different animals end up in one geographical region and though different they appear to have similar characteristics. Evolution could explain not only forms and origins of animals and plants, but also how they are distributed around the whole world. By comparing an evolution and the theory of creation, no creationist has given credible explanation as to why different types of species tend to have similar forms in various geographical regions. Through the process of convergent evolution, evolution explains this pattern. The explanation here is quite straightforward. Species living in similar habitats experience similar selection pressures that arise from their environment thus evolving similar adaptations and as a result these different species end up having similar behaviours and similar appearance even though they are not related. In that, there are three evolutionary theories in play and working together, and they include speciation, common ancestry and natural selection. Through that we can explain that species living in one geographical region are descendants of species that once lived in the same place. These can be seen even in plants and animals found on oceanic islands and how they resemble their counterpart species found on the nearest mainland. Here we learn that an evolution explains the diversity of life forms in different geographical regions.
When we try to discuss the engine of growth we engine of evolution come back to natural selection. Selection is an explanation of how genes producing healthy adaptation traits become more dominant and frequent over time. Adaptation of a given species is to a particular environment is not by the will of the species but it is inevitable only if the species has the right type of genetic variation. There are three main things involved in adaptation through natural selection first, and there has to be a variance in the starting population. Second, there has to be heritability. That meant that a part of this variation has to originate from differences in the gene. Third, genetic variation should affect one`s probability in leaving offspring. From that we find that evolution by selection is therefore a combination of lawfulness and randomness. The first part is a random process whereby generation of an array of genetic variants caused by mutations. Both bad and good then followed by a process that is lawful, natural selection, that clusters this variation thus winnowing the bad and retaining the good. In an evolution nothing happens by chance. The essential materials for evolution and the variations between species are produced by chance mutations. Adaptations are produced through natural selection by filtering of these variations.
That become a strong molding force in that gene that have a higher chance of being dominant and passed on are accumulated and by so doing making a species even able to adapt and cope with their environment. This unique combination of selection and mutation, and lawfulness and chance then explains how adaptation occurs in organisms. In an evolution of adaptation, there is no downhill. That means that adaptation must be beneficial to its possessor. It must give a reproductive benefit to the species possessing it. It evolves by increasing output in reproduction of the possessor.
Sex can also drive evolution. There are two main forms of sexual selection. That entailed the direct competition for females by males and the other is the selective choosing of males or possible mates by females. The similarity is that in both forms of sexual selection there is a competition for females by the males. Evolution of sex has great mysteries. We could ask ourselves why we only have two types of sexes and why they differ in terms of sizes and numbers of gametes. Natural selection tends to favour changing this state whereby one sex generates small gametes and the other preferably the female make larger but fewer gametes. This asymmetry in gametes size sets stage for every sexual selection since it forces different evolutions in mating strategies for the two sexes. In general, males end up competing for females.
The origin of species can be based on adaptations and origin of adaptations. One simple way to explain the origin of species is by comparing resemblance. You may find one group of individuals resembling more with each other than they do with individuals in another group. That was known as morphological species concept. We finally arrive at the notion that species are different because they form barriers between each other preventing them from interbreeding. That led to describing a species as an evolutionary community. The biological species can then be described as the fundamental unit of evolution, being the thing that evolves. By explaining the evolution of reproductive barriers then we explain species and their origin. In the book, the book explains that the obstacles were by-products in the sexual or natural selection therefore causing geographical isolation in populations and thus causing evolution in different directions. Species do not just arise, and they are evolutionary accidents. Clusters in species don't evolve because diversity increases in them. They are the inevitable result caused by genetic barriers that come to existence when spatial populations that are isolated change differently and in different directions. For speciation, the most dependent factor is geographical isolation meaning that there were many opportunities in the history of life for isolation to be experienced by the population as a whole.The human race has evolved as a species by itself. Looking at the fossils that have been excavated by man, we can see that man has evolved over time to where we are now.
There is clearly undisputed evidence that shows the evolution of human from ape-like ancestors. It is a fact that a human divergence from ancestor of chimps happened in central or east Africa several millions of years ago. Many biologists believe that the changes in climate and the environment took part in the first hominine trait in evolution. Through our genetic heritage we can see that chimps and humans differ not only in the presence of genes but also in genes sequence. Buy summing this we see that genetic divergence between chimpanzees and ourselves appear in several forms like the proteins produced by genes. In the absence or presence of genes, where and when of development genes are expressed and the number of the gene copies. The close relatives of humans have various distinct traits that distinguish us from them. These differences are in physiology, behaviour, anatomy, language and the size of the brain and its configuration. That showed that there was substantial genetic change required for as to evolve from the primates.
Since the start of modern biology, racial prejudice and racial classification has been in work together. There are many of races recognized by anthropologists. Research has shown that racial differences cause a very small percentage of genetic variation in humans and that these variations appear physically. The rest of genetic variation is present in individuals within races. For some biologists, sexual selection can cause considerable variation in genes between races through easy access to mates thus affecting physical appearance. Various populations may be characterized by different IQs, different abilities and behaviour. One cannot rule out that it is possible the differences are a product that is non-genetic but caused but cultural and environmental differences. What we have learned from records of human fossils combined with discoveries done in human genetics is enough evidence that we indeed are evolved animals.
The book finally focuses on evolution redox. That was all about having the proof that support the evolution theory, but some people still don't believe in it. It encapsulates a profound, widespread ambiguity of how many persons feel and think about evolutionary biology. Many biologists have no dissent from each other about claims on evolutionary theory. But some differ on the details of how it occurred. The controversies brought to show that this is a thriving field since science moves forward through debate, ignorance and testing of various different theories through observation and experiments. To the people who bring about controversies or tend to disagree about evolution, evolution raises questions of morality, purpose and meaning. They just will not accept the theory even with sufficient evidence supporting evolution. What bothers them is a consequence of facing the facts present and how this may affect them emotionally. These perceived evils of evolution are conceptualized from naturalism and materialism.
Naturalism view explains that there is only one way to understanding the universe, and that's tough scientific methods. Materialism explains that in the universe the physical matter is the only reality. The others like thoughts, emotions and will arise from physical laws that act on a matter. Simply, evolution is a theory entailing patterns and process in a life diversification. It is not a major philosophical scheme about life and its meaning. Evolution cannot direct us on how to behave or what to do. That was where the problem comes in. Most people want to be told how to act and what to do so when evolution does not do that they tend to start criticizing it. Evolution is just. It is neither immoral nor moral. I believe that theology and philosophy may end up not progressing because according to them they have already arrived at their truth rationally about the universe.
In conclusion, theology is all about God creating the world and all in it. To science, that is not the end of the story, science is never satisfied. The studies of the universe will always progress. The creation conviction brings about the scientific inquiry and curiosity. Evolution has evidence of an existence and thus should not be written off by other theories. No other theory has substantial evidence that has been consistent for millions of years as compared to evolution thus coming to the conclusion that evolution is real.
Coyne, J. A. (2010). Why evolution is true. Oxford: Oxford University Press.