Cloning is done by removing the nucleus of an egg and substituted it with the nucleus from an embryonic stem cell animal .A tadpole was produced from an adult cell of a frog by Dr. Gurdon in 1962, but it was welcomed with great distrust since the adult cells cannot assume new ones. He removed the cell nucleus from a developed intestinal cell and injected it into a frog egg. This was to test if the genome could change. The egg was reprogrammed introducing nucleus and the genes were switched to a developing egg rather than duties of an intestinal cell. From the test, the hereditary information didn’t change during the development (The New York Times).
Also Dr. Yamanaka in 2006 discovered that reprogramming can be completed by four controlling gene agents in the egg. These agents are known as biologists that are made by master genes to control other genes. Once these four agents are injected into an adult cell, the cell can be walked back into a stem cell. These stem cells are known as induced pluripotent cells which mature into any form of adult cell.
Forensic genetic is a branch of genetics dealing with application of genetic information to lawful problems and lawful proceedings which involves DNA testing to five the evidence. A case in Italy was conducted where a student (Knox) murdered her roommate. There was no evidence since the experts who were appointed by court had errors in their investigation since the gloves used to collect were dirty. Later forensic genetic was carried out, finding Knox’s DNA on the knife’s handle. Also some DNA were found clasp of bra (Seattle Times Newspaper).
Infectious diseases like H1N1 Influenza are transmitted to people when breathing in minute droplets coughs or sneezes, or when touching something with a virus on it. The symptoms of this disease appear in 1-7 days. The H1N1 virus was found earlier in pigs, which over time, the virus mutated and infected man.
The flu virus is spread to people when:
- Through coughing or sneezing of a person with flu and others inhales.
- Coming into contact with infected object with N1H1 then touch the mouth, eyes or nose
It is noted that one cannot get H1N1 flu virus from drinking water, eating pork, or swimming.
Blood doping is an illegal method of enhancing athletic performance by boosting the blood’s ability to transport extra oxygen to muscles. Athletes’ practices blood doping to increase oxygen carrying in their blood, thus increasing stamina. As a result it raises the volume of haemoglobin in the bloodstream. Once haemoglobin has been increased, a higher amount of oxygen is carried to reach and fuel the athlete’s muscles improving his/her performance and the stamina more so in running (The Seattle Times).
It is evident that, slow- moving persons and old people after an EPO was injected into their body, they returned to work. Sometimes once EPO has been doped, it multiplies someone’s red blood cells raising the risks of strokes, multiplies the cancer cells, heart attack and blood clots.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an oestrogen- mimicking chemical commonly used in manufacturing of food packaging , cups for toddlers ,plastic bottles lining of food and beverage cans. With time, the chemical leaches into the food, especially when the vessel is used in a microwave oven. With time, the chemical bond joining the BPA weakens giving out the BPA molecules which is risky. A test carried out of 2,000 people, it was found that only 90 percent of BPA was in the urine. BPA is also found in breast milk, umbilical cord blood and blood of expectant female. Much of BPA chemical poses a cancer risk, increased risks of heart disease in children and diabetes in adults.
Also aztrazine is an endocrine disruptor which causes anomalous reproductive development and immune destruction. It is also linked to congenital abnormality of the nasal cavity. Aztrazine interfere with or mimic certain hormones blocking proper function and leading to confrontational outcome. Research carried in Texas which has the highest level of atrazine application are 80 percent likely give birth to children with choanal atresia comparing to countries with low level of the chemical. The chemical mimics human estrogen, blocking the reception of hormones, affecting the concentration of natural hormones.
Hormone disruptors dictates the acts of estrogen in the body, mimicking them throwing off the body’s hormonal equilibrium. BPA has an effect in the growth of the brain in the womb. The BPA chemical affects also the endocrine system by mimicking the hormones affecting their production or preventing their target. BPA has intensive effect when human is at a phase of fast development especially in the womb. It also results to abnormal penis growth, quick sexual maturing in female and prostate and breast.
Federal USDA and government regulate has campaigned that baby bottles and drinking cups could no longer contain BPA, introduced regulations that ban selling, manufacturing , advertising or importing baby bottles made of BPA. It has worked also with industries to eliminate or reduce BPA- based lining, producing consumer BPA-free products and also encourage industries to use BPS which is a substitute of BPA. Finally people are advised to exchange plastics containing BPA to other plastics which don’t contain BPA, glass or stainless steel vessels (New York Times).
"Gurdon and Yamanaka Win Nobel Prize for Stem Cell Research - NYTimes.com."The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 8 Oct. 2012. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/09/health/research/cloning-and-stem-cell-discoveries-earn-nobel-prize-in-medicine.html?_r=0
HECKLE, HAROLD. "Doctor says not only cyclists used his doping | Sports | The Seattle Times." The Seattle Times | News, sports, weather, events in the Northwest.29 Jan. 2013. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
TAVERNISE, SABRINA. "Bisphenol A News - The New York Times." Times Topics - The New York Times.17 July 2012. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.<http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/b/bisphenol_a/index.html