Article 1 Attachment Theory and Adult Relationships
A-Compare and contrast this research to prior studies as described in the article. That is, according to the researchers, what makes this study unique?
Unlike other studies, this research involved testing series of theoretical predictors connecting attachments working models and their effectiveness. Specific types of caregiving of dating partners display at a stressful conflict resolution time were given a priority (Simpson et al., 2007). Upon admission, each partner had to complete an adult interview attachment after which they were video-taped during the process of their problem solving. The authors’ coordination and arrangement of every event that led to the broader theoretical implications of reliable findings was exceptional. This makes the research extra competent and unique.
B- Can the results of the research have practical application in our adult lives? If so, in what ways are we affected; if not, why?
Although there is a larger theoretical issue of results interpretation, the overall conclusion is that correlation nature about the connections of optimal care giving forms and AAI security are reliable. This means that they have practical application to adults’ lives. However, adults’ relationships could be affected by the degree of inner understanding between partners. This makes it almost impossible to generalize the kind of different relationships among couples (Simpson et al., 2007).
C- Discuss the implications for further research, questions raised by the study, and your personal perspective on the results.
Emotional care giving typically, quickly and completely reduces distress compared to other kinds of care giving. Further research could help establish distinguish how such a scenario is applicable to actual relationship situation. On my perspective, the results of this research can be used as a benchmark to predict and solve wide range of relationship problems.
D- Share any personal experiences that would either support or reject any of the five hypotheses. You must select at least one hypothesis to discuss, but may select more than one if you wish.
Hypothesis number one entails testing individuals with more secure parents’ attachments using the APIM analysis and the PROC MIXED program.
The results show that such kind of individual hold a calm and greater emotional care to their distressed partners. This concurs with my personal experience in my first relationship. This is because I used to take all chances and offer maximum concentration to my distressed partner (Simpson et al., 2007). I would often ask questions and provide what I was able to do in my capacity and capability. All my efforts paid tribute courtesy to my parents with whom I had great close ties with.
Article 2 Humanistic & Cognitive Therapies
A- Describe your understanding of the 2 forms of relaxation therapy (RT) noted in the study.
Relaxation therapy (RT) is a coping technique that entails a behavioral treatment component in which individuals extensively use anticipation of feared stimuli to learn how to relax. There are two forms of RTs. These are progressive relaxation and applied relaxation. Progressive relaxation therapy involves individuals learning to relax through tensing and relaxing various muscle groups (Siev et al., 2007). After one gains the state of relaxation, they engage in further relaxing without the tensing of muscles and eventual learns to relax the muscles without a particular activity. On the other hand applied relaxation involves individuals applying relaxation vivo through approaching the increasingly feared situations. They use relaxation techniques in managing the evoked anxiety.
B- Compare and contrast RT with the other approach examined in the study: cognitive therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CT, CBT).
The difference between cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and relaxation therapy (RT) is that; CBT comprise a lot of self monitoring, cognitive restructuring rehearsal of coping skills and relaxation training. RT only comprises of progressive relaxation session and applied relaxation techniques as discussed in (a) above. However both two forms of therapy entail relaxation training sessions to enhance the acquired coping skills.
C-What were the primary objectives of this study?
The study’s main objective is to address the claims no one in efficacious among the bona fide therapy treatments. This was done through comparing the different kind of therapies, that is, cognitive therapy (RT), relaxation therapy (RT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CB) in generalized anxiety disorder treatment.
D- Do the results of this study support the use of these treatment protocols over other psychotherapies? That is, are they superior to other protocols? Why or why not?
Through group comparisons separated by ages, the results of the study show that participants that received CBT were better off significantly in all domains compared to those who received RT and CT. these means that these treatment protocol are advocated for by this study because of their effectiveness to addressing the problems of panic disorders (Siev et al., 2007). Therefore these protocols are more preferred than any other kinds of panic disorders treatment.
Article 3 Disorders of Childhood: Causes and Treatment
1 Explain the 2 dimensions of conceptualizing these disorders.
The first issue of concern is the cause of these disorders. Many researchers have tried to establish the cause but still yet it is to be known. It is the perception of the general public that severe emotional disorders (SED) are as a result of heredity. SED develops under other combinations of factors such as psychological trauma, biology and even environmental stress.
2. Using additional resources (beyond the course text, but not Wikipedia or WebMD), support or refute the premise that the numbers of children with SEDs is significant.
According to John Grohol, the number of children suffering from extensive emotion disorder is on a rise. This is because of the ever challenging environment to children. John explains the existence of various challenges that children face as the root cause of the rising number of SED children. For instance a child at a very young age is expected to adopt an environment of with exceptional capabilities. Those who fail to do so end up being stressed up (Grohol, 2007). Unless the issue encounters a necessary defense mechanism, such individuals end up being miserable in their entire lives. 3. Provide an analysis of the potential causes and treatments for the observed numbers of children or adolescents with SEDs.
The exact causes of severe emotional disorders and illness are generally not yet known. However, the involvement of genital illness trends that a family endures plus other elements are thought to be among the causes of SED. Other key causes include psychological trauma, stress as a result of the environment and social functioning, heredity and biological factors. Heredity issues are illness trends that run in families. This means that the disease is passed on from parents to children and grand children (Grohol, 2007). The biological cause is as a result of brain neurotransmitters that influence nerve cells communicate with each other. In case such working mechanism is at fault, it result to SED. Psychological trauma may be triggered by elements such as physical/sexual abuse, loss of parent at an early age and so forth (Harrison et al., 2010) Treatment of SED requires a severe psychotherapy schedules that equips a victim with the mental strength appropriate to automatically eliminate the condition.
Article 4 A Possible Links between Personality Disorders & ADHD
A-What do the authors claim as the basis for this study? What is the purpose?
The patters of clinical co morbidity of Axis I and II are essential in clinical validity evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study is build based on this assumption. The main objective and purpose is to propose a conclusive statement on the ongoing debate over the (ADHD) validity construct in childhood (Miller et al., 2007). The study also aims at providing the implication of the extensive, incompletely described co morbid Axis I and II and clear the air over the uncertainty of the two.
B-What did the study reveal regarding Personality Disorders that was not expected?
The study reveals the bias of gradient severity perspective on ADHD among recruited adults in a heterogeneous condition. This leads to adults with personality disorders posing similar personality diatheses that tend to concur an all chance levels. It was contrary to expectations that the ADHD group had more cluster C personality disorders compared to control participants.
C- Does the study indicate a propensity for Personality Disorder when the Axis I ADHD disorder is present? Why?
The study shows that there exists a personality disorder at presence of every Axis I ADHD disorder. This is because; ADHD disorders were associated with more co morbid externalizing disorders than those with non ADHD status (Miller et al., 2007).
D- What are the implications for further research?
As the study results presented a support of clinical validity of ADHD construct in childhood, and highlighted the importance of axis II, it does not address the question of the clinical difference between the ADHD-I and ADHD-C as the DSM-IV in adults defines them. A further research could clear the uncertainty over this condition and provide more reliable conclusion on the same.
E- Provide your scholarly opinion of the findings, concepts, and hypotheses presented by the authors of this study.
The study addresses all aspects as described in every hypothesis. However, various challenges were never addressed in distinguishing the specificity of ADHD to functional impairment in relation to all axis II disorders. My opinion is that the study could take a close consideration of the solution to every challenge so as to minimize the limitations of their functions.
Article 5 Combating the Social Stigma of Mental Illness
1. What role does a socio-cultural model of psychopathology have in the context of the study? Explain
The study analyses the stigma and attributions that psychopathology has to enabling people to obtaining a job and acquire life time goals. The socio-cultural model entails the emotional and behavioral processes that are attributes to healing mental disorders necessary for individual controllability (Corrigan et al., 2007). This yields to emotional reactions that have an effect to shaping ones’ responsibility to a particular condition. Results from the statistical analyses of the study shows that the socio-cultural model is vital to the realization the set objectives
2. How does attribution theory apply to reducing stigma and increasing employment?
The exogenous factors of the attribution theory are influential to responsibility hence affecting the remaining elements. These are anger and pity. These two elements and their coefficients were very significant in determining the finding and keeping of a job. Keeping all variable constant, the attribution theory suggests that help finding and keeping a job was a prediction by pity and anger. Therefore, the theory may be applicable in reducing all stigmas and assist individuals to get employed.
3. Describe your idea of a public health program that would serve to reduce stigma surrounding the mentally ill and promote rehabilitation.
The study presents a behavior intervention instead of actual behavior. My idea would be to put more emphasis to actual behaviors in limiting mental ill stigmas. This would more closely distinguish all attributions of a good health policy that will automatically promote rehabilitation. Actual behavior sensitization will suppress the kinds of thoughts, education and the contrasting myths of psychiatric disorders (Corrigan et al., 2007). This would yield the strongest effects in minimizing the stigma. It is through this that endorsement of employment support is enhanced not only to targeted group but also to the general public.
Corrigan, P. W., Larson, J. E., & Kuwabara, S. A. (2007). Mental Illness Stigma and the Fundamental Components of Supported Employment. Rehabilitation Psychology, 57.
Grohol, J. (n.d.). Psych Central: Dr. John Grohol's Mental Health Page. John Grohol.
Harrison, A. E. (2010). Speech disorders: Causes, treatment and social effects. Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Publishers.
Miller, T. W., & Nigg, J. T. (2007). Axis I and II Comorbidity in Adults with ADHD. Abnormal Psychology, 46.
Siev, J., & Chabless, D. L. (2007). Specificity of Treatment Effects: cognitive therapy and relaxation fo generalized anxiety and panic disorders. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43.
Simpson, A. J., & Winterheld, A. H. (2007). Working Models of Attachment and Reactions to Different Form of Caregiving From Romantic Partners. journal of personality and social psychology, 37.