Hatim Ahmed Alghamdi
Study purpose is the establishment whether children’s’ trust to people is formatting on the early stages and in what amount it will affect his future. The work includes comparison of the factors that show the impact to the children’s ambitions whether to take the initiative and be active in the world, feel confident or how all of that is largely determined by the experience of interaction with his mother and father, from the first days of life. The work includes the analysis of experimental projects of education of children in unusual surroundings, poor environment. In studies reviewed, researches pay attention to the early stages of formatting of children’s character, especially his surroundings and the ways of treatment and communication with him and near him. It elaborates on the important influences and difficulties children may face at the early stages. In conclusion, despite the relationship between children and their educators are very individual, they can all be focused into the right direction in order to bring bright personality with goals and love to his or her surroundings.
Keywords: childhood, parents, behavior, development, critical
Being a parent is an extremely responsible task. Understanding of the weight of this role directs children’s future accordingly. Kids come to this world tiny and fragile seeking to become someone. From the very beginning, first years of life, the basis for the future are laid. Parents can not only instruct and punish by their intuition they can change and train to be a well-rounded individual, it is necessary not to overdo as well. All the powers used and time spent shapes the fate and future adulthood of the kid. Our main issue is the impact of educators during the early critical years of the kid’s life.
Children that receive enough love and attention can be raised as decent citizens and human beings. Especially the first steps are important. At this time, it is extremely important to have economic, social and educational support.
Criteria of studies
Ten empirical recent studies included the experiments in the regions of Africa, Asia and America. They all aimed at children of an early age; however, some of them included the consequences faced by the grownups and the involvement of teachers and parents. Four studies emphasized in the creative approach in kids’ education (Diamond, 2014, Guo, 2015, Ramirez, 2015, Yildirim, 2010), other two studies showed the role of modern technologies use in children’s education ( Blackwell et al., 2014, Cohrssen et al., 2014, Justice, 2015). Furthermore, there are researches on the child growth in unusual environment and the consequences of that (Fotso et al., 2012, Podesta, 2014, Yazejian, 2013). The criteria for methods used were teachers’ interviews, self-evidences and mood and feelings questionnaire.
Nevertheless, with an aim of profound discussion of the impact of educators’ influence during early years, the studies were grouped by the topics of the spheres: the definition of early years, the impact on the child’s learning, specified recent researches, evolving issues as the children grow up, the role of technologies and support in it.
Early Years. According to the recent studies “early age” is the period in the person’s life when the main features of characters are formatted and the level of vulnerability is so high that the circumstances can shape this person’s ambitions, relationships, and future (Podesta, J. 2014). The early age encompasses the first years of meeting the world, the experiences one faces and the transition to the conscious perception of the world and people around.
The conditions and relationships children have at an early age have developed several basic factors that reflect the issue. That is why, insight on parent’s methods and techniques hidden and exposed are important for development of the self-contained independent human being. More closely, it is an age when child is most subject to environment there are in, commonly, it is about from the age child is brought up to the world to 5-7 years old.
Impacts on Child’s Learning. The interest and encouragement of the young person’s learning relies on a variety of factors: his or her social status, amount of family’s income, access to modern technologies, health abilities and, of course, level of attention and the knowledge of parents of close-ones about the importance of focusing on the broad development of a child at an early age.
The main effect on the child’s learning bring their parents. The level of warmth, love, encouragement can give more than all those comprehensive techniques. Although there are techniques that are used even to this point. Profound work of Yazejian, N., Bryant, D., Freel, K., and Burchinal, M. (2015) suggests that at home and educational institutions the primary factors for development emerge. What matters here is the quality and quantity of communication. Basically, the more care child possesses the more opportunities for growth are gained, the better person he will become, and, as a result, the happier it would feel. The research systemized data from the Educare system and twelve institutions. It was a 10-years study from 2003 to 2013. This project provided longitudinal assessment to standardize the kid's abilities after and during the early age learning. Moreover, author stresses that it is better to provide interactive education with strangers at an early age.
Children from families with several languages spoken show higher results than average kids. That means, that interactive and unusual skills from the very beginning reflect person’s intelligence as it requires more efforts of brain usage. In addition, once a child misses an opportunity to entry earlier to the educational institution, lost time will not come back. This study is a vivid search of how multilingual make profit, as they do not lose their mother tongue and gain English, for instance. As a conclusion of this part, the level of quality of the educational institute may directly influence the outlook of a child, unless it was not from the dual environment (Yazejiaan et al., 2015).
We suggest focusing firstly on the household environment of a child. Scientific research by Fotso et al. (2012) encompasses the proof of the fact that the information to learn how the child’s mentality and health from such African regions as Nairobi and Kenya is affected by different levels of poverty. The nutrition and safe household condition play the profound role in determining person’s future. One may argue that it is unfair to judge from the origins, but there is one tricky objection to that argument – access to education. Statistically children from safe and financially stable countries have more chances to be educated enough for future well-being. In studies, the picture of poor surroundings depicted fully: overcrowded settlements without enough access to a doctor, hot meal and clean water. It is not all about basic needs firstly, but it undoubtedly affects child malnutrition. There is a strong connection between income and the growth of the kids. Poverty, including in urban areas can never result in positive. The main impact is the nutrition; the lack of food creates the lack of morality and physical stability, especially children below two years old.
Experts’ Research Show on the Importance of the Early Years. One of the main purposes of education should be the development of critical thinking, which means the ability to think independently creative in order to progress and composite own projects and ideas.
Creativity is a complex phenomenon and is especially in danger of vanishing considering equalizing media and technology impacts that rather develop primitive appreciation of the world and result in the masses that are easily manipulated. Study of Yildirim (2010) has found that there is a connection between those activities that temper a child’s physical and intellectual state and what we call creative broadening. That is a positive connotation, which makes upbringing even easier. Also, finding shows that education should imitate or even involve real-life situations, so that child will be prepared for the tests of fate. The crucial role in the nurturing of creativity plays the level of education of the teacher or parent, meaning not only the degree or the number of books read, or even not including this one, but the emotional and artistic state of the grown-up. When the person is full of fantasies, dreams and courage himself, he can share it with the children.
Some Important Areas of Learning as the Children Grow. There is other concern about children’s future that parent often claim to be responsible for - success. Will their precious be successful in his or her job or personal life? To what amount should ambitions be encouraged in order not to empower superfluous and artificial hopes? If promoted wisely, elaborating leadership skills in a child can be extremely rewarding. The study of Diamond (2014) says that using methods as discussion, observation, and experimental learning is necessary for an early and future age education. There are difficulties that stand on the way of establishing of the future leader.
First of all, there is an interview on how participants respond to the statements persuading that they are already the leaders. Responses change through the course where they open up to difficult tasks when they resolve issues and stand up for themselves. The main understanding they get is that leaders are not only the presidents or the heads of multinational corporations, but ordinary professionals or more appropriate to say amusing personalities. In order to be happy, one should run his own life, decide what he wants and how he wants to do this. Relying on the abovementioned, to bring up a leader it is more useful to bring it to the child since the early age, than to fracture mentality when the character has been already formatted. Under the constructionism theory communicating by discussing with friends or colleagues, building opinions, providing the whole system of values and the picture of the world helps on the development. Moreover, the great impact has the literature and the use of it in an imperical way.
We are always convinced that reading is a key and remedy to everything. Is that a truth? The study on the aloud-reading educational method is an answer. This practical experiment encompassed a variety of students from the rural, suburban and urban areas so that each sector was covered. In the time of studies the six to six model used in order for disabled child to have an assigned peer.
The results shows many positive connotations that print-focused read-alouds improve literacy skills, develop imagination and fantasy, encourages own story-telling and artistic skills. This tool is effective in fighting with the refusal to read and everything that relies on the grammar-writing, speaking opportunities. This also affects non-verbal relations, which gives chances for the children with lower levels of cognition. Being literacy-able is the core step in starting an education. No technology can substitute reading of fairy-tale before going to sleep and see magical dreams (Justice, L. M., Logan, J. R., Kaderavek, J. N., & Dynia, J. M. 2015).
There is also a finding on the advantages of involvement concerning mathematics activities, where the approach is similar. The study of Cohrssen, C., Church, A. and Tayler, C. (2014) defines the answers of children while they study and concludes that close connections to an educator is the main principle of learning with the result. Safe environment, trust, humor and light interaction stimulates the learning process. Children’s mind and attention may be conquered by the sensitive attention to their interests and points of view. It is important to combine time of learning and leisure, provide breaks, and engage in hobbies, extracurricular activities of a kid.
Support for Children that is Necessary. There are different techniques of approaching a child, those who tell that the child should be guided all the time will not bring up an independent individual, still there are some spheres when a child should get specified guidance and then choose himself. How hard a parent may try the possibilities of one family are always limited. When we create a family, we settle on one soil in one culture and all the positive and negative consequences of that, of course if your family is not from diplomatic corps. That means that there is a need to provide missing elements of other cultures, traditions. The finding of Guo (2015) elaborates on the special programmers that help to educate children not only as decent human beings, but as modern members of the society as well. This way, in a long perspective, issues of social injustice, sexual, gender, race prejudices and cruelty can be solved and overcome. Study comes to a conclusion that the perception of the environment of every single child is necessary. It is convincingly needed for children from the representatives of the minority groups. Those curriculums should include subjects and activities that provide values of understanding and respect. The example of the boy from the program showed that the institution itself cannot provide effective skills, children need the harmonious approach from his teachers. In order for this idea to work effectively, the social constructivist approach is suggested to be used. Therefore, there is a work for everyone in the circuit: educators, whether teachers or parents and obviously, kids.
The Role of Technology in an Early Childhood. There is another point that this problem should be looked from the teacher’s side. How can technology substitute real-life communication? Is this an economy of time and money or just severe degradation? For example, there is an extraordinary research on how 20th and 21st centuries’ findings can shape more grown-up personality. However, the conclusion of it is that there is a possibility for technologies to stimulate studies. That means that teacher may implement the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the schedule on a par with other activities and lessons. In this relation, those classes require fewer efforts of teachers and parents as well. In addition, the only way for new-wave technologies to work effectively is to combine with traditional teaching methods, thus, communicating with grown-ups directly. This accustoms pupils to the real world’s environment and does not cause this much risky addiction to the computer. Moreover, there is no finding of the study that any of the basic communicating skills are increasingly evolved compared to traditional ways of learning. Firstly, some typical views that the least experienced teacher is the more technologies he will use is vanished. This statement has its logic, but only in a way, that younger generation is used to technology due to being born in this era. Secondly, confidence deprives of the number of use of the digital technology in the classroom. The more teacher involves in projects, the better he or she would feel about the result.
In the end, the probated factors included the practice, years of teaching, individual attitude and technology possibilities. Those exogenous variables in the end have strict influence on the use of digital methods, but so called endogenous have the secondary impact. There is two-sided effects of digital technologies (Blackwell, C. K., Lauricella, A. R., & Wartella, E. 2014).
Summary and Assessment of the Role of Parents. Education in the family, as in life itself, and even our behavior and our feelings for children are complex, volatile and contradictory. In addition, parents are not alike each other, they differ. The relationship with the child, as well as with each person is deeply personal and unique. For example, if parents around seem perfect, as they know the right answer to every question, in this case, they are unlikely to make the very start parental task - to bring up a child's need for independent search for new knowledge. That is necessary for the mentioned critical appreciation of the world. Parents make the first social environment of the child. More to that, personalities of the parents play an essential role in kid’s life. It is not a secret that in difficult times of life we turn to parents, especially to the mother. This is a special feeling that is different from other emotional ties, the feeling that paint child relations and parents. The specificity of the feelings, that arise between children and parents, are determined mainly by the fact that carrying is necessary for a kid to stay alive, including food, medical supplies and household tools. A shortage of paternal love - truly vital need for every little human being. Love of each child to his parents is boundless, unconditional and unlimited. In addition, if in the first years of living the love of parents providing their own lives and safety, then they mature parental love increasingly acts as a support and internal security, emotional and psychological state of man. From the other side, parent’s love is the source and a guarantee of human welfare that supports physical and mental health. That is why the first and main task of parents is to create a child's confidence that he is loved.
Most of the educator’s failures come from inability connect the approaches. Either those who have succeed linked to traditional organizational ways or they have used the stage's typical content as the focus on the providing tasks with and without related ICTs, or by experimenting with their own exploiting technological make-up to implement classroom activities or using the way as a stage for training basic digital abilities. Consequently, it is better to use modern techniques while communicating in the real-time regime (Ramírez, E., Martín-Domínguez, J., Orgaz, B., & Canedo, I. ,2015). Another study emphasizes on the need to provide technologies for children through the teachers and examines the main basic factors that affect the appreciation of technologies. Study explored the connection between factors of the use of digital sphere innovations. It says even that young children can go far beyond their educators; however, people who at least understand all the risks and benefits of it should accurately look upon the first meeting with technology.
In addition, because of the religious and social impacts there are views that the male children should be raised as the strong ones, the ones who are not let to weep or cry. Even with the girl power that has been in fashionfor the last 20 years in the Western world there is still the burden of responsibility given to a man. In the class hard organizing task is often given to the male part. This problem holds its roots in the vision that leadership is the same as commanding and operating. To the opposite, the core way here is to equally support children in their capacity to learn on their own. Experience and practice is always better than just providing the tools and direct instructions on how to solve tasks. There should be a place for personal hesitation and probation. Children rely on their habits and reflexes, however, compared to grown-ups, they are not so stable, so there are more options to choose how to perform, and as a result, there is a chance to learn by mistakes. The experiment held by the study consists of different stages.
The secret behind nurturing creativity is stimulating talents and spirits that everybody has. Therefore, despite commercial stereotypes, children can learn how to be a talent, yet for the right way, special attitude is needed. There are special guides for these purposes, but what is more urgent is to examine the child himself, his interests, and features of character, simply, things he likes and dislikes. Educator should use all the emotional and intellectual potential he has and pass it to the child, who, in fact, will absorb the information immediately. And then for the parent or educator it is good not to limit the child with communication only with himself, it is better to provide different people from different groups: old, young, male or female, however, which are aimed at the positive effect.
Further Research and Studies
Practical studies refer that there are tons of options on how to develop a person at early critical stages. However, there are factors that can be a complex obstruction on the way as the financial and social way. The further research should include practices of interactive non-verbal education with detailed offers on games and techniques. Further research can also focus theatrical methods that actors use in elaboration of behavior.
Blackwell, C. K., Lauricella, A. R., & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 77, 82-90. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.013
Cohrssen, C., Church, A., & Tayler, C. (2014). Pausing for learning: Responsive engagement in mathematics activities in early childhood settings. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(4), 95-102.
Diamond, A. (2014). Pre-service early childhood educators' leadership development through reflective engagement with experiential service learning and leadership literature. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(4), 12-20.
Fotso, J. C., Madise, N., Baschieri, A., Cleland, J., Zulu, E., Kavao Mutua, M., & Essendi, H. (2012). Child growth in urban deprived settings: Does household poverty status matter? At which stage of child development? Health & Place, 18(2), 375-384. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.12.003
Guo, K. (2015). Teacher knowledge, child interest and parent expectation: Factors influencing multicultural programs in an early childhood setting. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 40(1), 63-70.
Justice, L. M., Logan, J. R., Kaderavek, J. N., & Dynia, J. M. (2015). Print-focused read-alouds in early childhood special education programs. Exceptional Children, 81(3), 292-311. doi:10.1177/0014402914563693
Podesta, J. (2014). Habitus and the accomplishment of natural growth: Maternal parenting practices and the achievement of 'school-readiness'. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(4), 123-130.
Ramírez, E., Martín-Domínguez, J., Orgaz, B., & Canedo, I. (2015). Analysis of classroom practices with an ICT resource in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 86, 43-54. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.002
Yazejian, N., Bryant, D., Freel, K., & Burchinal, M. (2015). High-quality early education: Age of entry and time in care differences in student outcomes for English-only and dual language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 32, 23-39. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.02.002
Yildirim, A. (2010) Creativity in early childhood education program. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1561-1565. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.365