Q.1.Cross-cultural psychology is a branch of psychology that tries to explain how characteristics of certain people including their behaviors, beliefs, values and way of perceiving certain things affect our way of life or others in a certain community. According to Ethan (2010) in the article ‘The Americanization of Mental illness’, he argues that according to research, mental diseases and diversity located across cultures have changed with time and in different places. He also describes mental illness as involving the mind and the brain therefore; one has less control over it. In addition, he argues that, mental illness can be brought about as a result of influence impacted by science and religion. Specifically, he argues by pointing out how the West has impacted on the rest of the world by spreading their modern knowledge of mental illness. In addition, he attributes this to the fact that, the West has always taught the world about their belief of the cause of mental illness therefore spreading the symptoms of mental diseases to other cultures in various parts of the world. As a result, this has changed the perception and treatment procedures in these cultures leading to other mental disorders like stress, anorexia or loss of appetite, depression and schizophrenia.
Additionally, according to Mehta, export of Western biomedical ideas has had numerous impacts to other cultures including stigma against the mentally ill and fear of death (cited in Watters N., 2010). Finally, Watters attributes cause of high stigma to criticism which he argues as the main reason of high schizophrenia incidences and re-occurrences in the United States.
Q.2.The effects of neocolonialism, an indirect command of the West to the non-west, is one of the emerging issues in cross cultural psychology. In addition, it influences the developing nations through relief aid, provision of markets, exchange of culture, education and technological developments. In that view, westerners are perceived as being superior in terms of service provision and industrially. Also, another emerging issue is how the Western mental health discourse influences other cultures including an explanation of the human nature, a description of personhood, an act of being sensitive to time and memory and the ability to control or authorize ones morality. Additionally, other emerging issues include: How different cultures influence child rearing and development; how culture impacts affects the ability of children to learn, achieve, and motivation and how culture affects personality and behavior (Shah, 2006).
The most significant emerging issue is the effects of the Western mental health discourse to other cultures including the developing nations. This causes various mental diseases especially schizophrenia which is the main cause of stress, depression and stigma in the affected cultures. Additionally, this calls for the need of cultural competence which is the ability of individuals and various organizations to perform their duties across various cultures effectively by use of appropriate attitudes, policies, behaviors and infrastructure (Watters, 2010).
Q.3. In summary, the West is involved in the export of most of the mental diseases like schizophrenia to other cultures which causes more severe impacts like stress, stigma and fear of death in these cultures. In addition, these mental diseases are generated from the mind and the symptoms are generated by the person affected (Watters, 2010).
Also, some of the emerging issues in cross cultural psychology include the impacts of neocolonialism to various cultures and effects of the Western medical health discourse to other cultures which affect personality, morality, education, child rearing, behavior, attitude and human nature ( Shah, 2006).
Watters, E. (2010, January 8). The Americanization of Mental Illness. The New York Times, pp.
Shah, S .A. (2006). Resistance to cross-cultural psychological efforts in disaster and trauma:
Recommendations for ethnomedical competence. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and
Trauma Studies. Retrieved May, 5, 2007, from http: // www.massey.ac.nz/-