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This paper explores hate crimes against people with a homosexual orientation. It gives examples of such crimes in the United States of America. This paper also considers ways out from this problem and possible decisions. There are also viewed key reasons of homosexuality and government’s attitude towards gays and lesbians. This paper suggests to strength psychological help, for example to create psychological centers, for those who want to change their non-traditional sexual orientation. It is also recommended to punish people committing hate crimes, because it is a deviation as well. This paper examines studies of Helena L. Alden and Karen F. Parker, April Guasp, Michelle A. Marzullo and Alyn J. Libman and Dr. Stephen Tomsen.
Keywords: homosexual orientation, hate crimes
Hate Crimes Against Gays
Nowadays homosexuality is not treated as a deviation, especially in the USA. Gays all over the world struggles for their freedom and the same rights as for people with the traditional orientation. They made a long way to protect their non-traditional life. A lot of crimes were committed against these people, because they were not like others. It is sad that nowadays the hate against gays became the illness as homophobia. People are becoming more and more aggressive and maniacal.
There were many hate crimes against gays in the United States of America. There are several examples according to the news in the Huffington post. For example, recently in 2013 one 32-year old man was shot in the face and severely killed while walking across the street with his partner. The suspect said several rude words to them and asked if they wanted to die. In New York, 4 men hit two gay men and screamed anti-gay words. Victims were taken to the hospital. The suspects were put in jail. These 4 men showed attributes of homophobia. In Indiana State, one man died in a fire because of anti-gay hate crime. There are a lot of such crimes in every state of America. Some statistics says that every hour in the U.S. there is a crime committed against homosexual people.
In 1871, in Germany, there was adopted a law about abiding homosexuality. When nazi took a power, such “crimes” became more severe - even simple kiss between men could be punished, there were 50000 people convinced by this crime during the existence of the Third Reich. After the Second World War this section wasn’t cancelled, and convinced continued to serve their terms in jail. Only in 1969 Nazi version of the law was abolished.
U.S. Army Captain in reserve, Tanya Domi, says that when she was 19 years old, she did not know what it is - a lesbian. She went into the army, where then, in 1974, was a law banning gays and lesbians to serve in the armed forces. Domi served on the base Devins in Massachusetts. 6 months after her arrival out of curiosity she visited the bar for lesbians in the neighboring town. Upon returning Domi were expected by a nasty surprise, - she was arrested, taken to the security office and formally read by her constitutional rights. After this, there was started an investigation lasted 18 months. As a result, Domi, who served in Intelligence service, was not arrested. She denied all accuses in her sexual orientation. Nevertheless, her level of secrecy was downgraded. Some of her colleagues, who confessed that they were lesbians had to say goodbye to a career in the armed forces. 26 years after these events, Tanya Domi, accepted an invitation of Barack Obama on December 22, 2010 to attend a White House signing the document, cancelling the law "Do not ask, do not tell" on gay service in the armed forces. Cancellation of the law means that U.S. troops do not need to hide or conceal their sexual orientation.
Despite of this information, there are also some examples, how law protects gay people. Below there are examples how people with a homosexual orientation struggles for their rights and also win the issues.
One American driver from the state of Michigan had to pay two hundred thousand dollars for the four- year damage after he hit another car that had only small injury. After considering the suit of the victim the court obliged the suspect to pay this amount. He said that recently he has left his wife because he was no longer able to have sexual life; he started to visit gay-bars and read gay-magazines – in other words, bearer of responsibility caused irreversible changes in the sexual orientation of the victim committing this accident.
In the U.S., the photo agency owned by two Christians had to pay $ 6600 for the fact that they refused to shoot a lesbian wedding.
Nowadays MSM (men who have sex with men) cannot be donors; their organs and blood are not used for transplantation and transfusion in the United States of America, Europe and a lot of other countries. Even in the liberal states of the USA there is a life ban for the donation if they had even one homosexual contact after 1977, in other words for the last 35 years. 1997 had been taken because it is the official date of the AIDS epidemic which lasts till this moment. Homosexual contacts are the main reason of the AIDS bursting increase among men in the USA.
On the 11th of February, 2014, there was taken a law in Kansas State. Residents of this State gave permission to all workers not to serve gay married couples. It is possible if couple’s peculiarities contradict with people’s religious believes. This rule touches not only private sector but also public sector. In the case of public sector workers should give service to a gay couple – they just should find less religious person to do it. As for the private sector, they can refuse homosexual couple in a service.
There are also some psychological reasons why people commit hate crimes, not only against homosexual people, but also against ordinary normal people. Hate crimes can take different forms: starting from the severe form (murdering) and ending with slight abuses on the street.
“While the perpetrators can be neighbours, work colleagues, family or friends, the majority are strangers. Two in three (67 per cent) victims of homophobic hate crime or incident said it involved male strangers; 13 per cent reported it involving female strangers.” (Alden & Parker, 2005) We can agree that due to their nature men can be more aggressive and violent. They can easily decide to struggle for their normal way of life. The same source says that great amount of crimes is committed by young generation: “A large proportion of those responsible for hate crimes and incidents are young. Half of victims said that the perpetrator was a stranger aged under 25. Lesbian, gay and bisexual people aged 18 to 24 themselves are more likely to have experienced crime or incident from someone under 25; 64 per cent reported this compared with 38 percent of those aged over 55.” (Alden & Parker, 2005) It is also not a surprise, and we can also agree with this fact because young people have more hormones. They can be uncontrolled because of their period of maturity. Due to psychological facts teenagers have a difficult period called “awkward age”, when they decline everything and try to struggle for their rights in the most severe forms.
Some sources believe that: “Even to many sympathetic observers, however, ‘hate crime’ also suggests a limited and overly individualistic way of explaining motive and patterns of offending. Research indicates that most acts of racist or ‘homophobic’ harassment and violence are perpetrated by psychologically normal offenders and other ways of explaining offending –rather than by the emphasis on irrational and extremist ideology- must be found.” (Tomsen, 2001) We can disagree on this point of view. Any aggression and crime is a deviation, normal and ordinary person will not have even thought to kill or abuse somebody because of his believes. Normal person can speak openly about his point of view on this issue but won’t make any harm to the opponent.
Hate crimes are very severe and index of aggression and ill mind. It cannot be treated as the norm in the society. Nevertheless, homosexuality cannot be treated as a norm too, it is a deviation. People should struggle with a tendency in the modern society, but certainly not in the way of hate crimes. People should find effective means for this problem decision.
Homosexuality supporters tend to argue that homosexuality was normal and accepted positively in society since ancient times. Nevertheless according to the works of ancient historians and satirists, we can make compelling conclusion that in the ancient world people increasingly valued family relationships. Although the phenomenon of homosexuality was frequent, however, in most cases, they caused a negative attitude in society. And if any of the ancient civilization reached certain heights in its development, it is rather in spite of, not because of the phenomenon of homosexuality. The history of mankind shows that when human nature is not bounded by moral values and norms, it allows sex to dominate, as in the life of the individual and in society that is destructive of society. Many civilizations have stayed in their development due to the lack of any restrictions on the expression of sexuality.
Several studies conducted by proponents of homosexuality in order to find the biological causes of homosexuality and to prove that it is something normal have showed no conclusive results. Neither studies of the brain nor studies of the hormonal system gave no evidence that homosexuality is caused biologically. There wasn’t detected the gene responsible for sexual orientation. There were not revealed specific hormones in people with a homosexual orientation.
Studies have shown that homosexuals, from a biological point of view, are ordinary people. It was also noted that the formation of sexual behavior is influenced by such factors as the human body’s anatomy, cultural traditions, environment settings, as well as a system of social rewards and punishments. The results showed that 58 % of homosexuals have experienced sexual violence, and the remaining 42% have experienced physical and emotional abuse , it refutes the popular myth that homosexual behavior has nothing to do with violence. Sometimes it happens that the sexual behavior pattern can be imposed on the younger child by environment and surroundings. This does not happen with every person , but there is a certain risk group. Society should do every effort not to allow the tragedy of false sexual orientation.
Research studies of psychological help, documented during 80 years in the USA and other countries, showed that in 33-60% of cases people could return to the natural human sexual orientation. But since 1973 treatment of homosexuality as an “alternative” lifestyle, not a sexual deviation began to acquire wide popularity. Under the pressure of spiteful, aggressive homosexual lobby which actively requires viewing the homosexuality issue in the context of a struggle for human rights and that directs the policy of disinformation carried by the media – the prevention of homosexuality was virtually nullified. The paradox is that the modern society is concerned about the preservation of health and the prolongation of human life. There is a struggle with smoking, because it (both active and passive) is dangerous for health, society actively and continually tries to protect the younger generation from drugs. There are many different programs and organizations offering advice and practical help in getting rid of addictions (tobacco , alcohol, drugs , etc.). Even prostitutes can get a psychological assistance in the rehabilitation. Despite all these psychological help to people with non-traditional sexual orientation is prohibited, while there are many homosexuals who wish to have a traditional orientation.
There are various statistics showing that the average homosexual changes his partner at least once a week and some gay men change about 500 partners throughout their lives. Random sex is the “essence of a homosexual revolution”. According to some studies, the average lifespan of a homosexual is much less than heterosexual. Results of other studies indicate that less than 3% of all homosexuals live up to 55 years. And if society is worried about dangers associated with tobacco, alcohol and drugs, it is not possible to ignore the enormous risk for life and health associated with homosexual behavior. Mortal danger of HIV and AIDS, of course, speaks for itself. But there are other threats. Homosexuals commit murders and suicides significantly more likely than heterosexuals; they are also infected with hepatitis B, syphilis and a host of other blood-borne and life-threatening diseases. Homosexuals incredibly often suffer injuries of the rectum, as well as encopresis (inability to control bowel movement) and anal cancer. These diseases occur even with using condoms, because organs and body tissues themselves are not designed for homosexual contacts. Relationship between disease and homosexuality is not in doubt for several thousand years.
Nevertheless, nowadays there are a lot of laws allowing gays and lesbians conduct their normal life without any prosecution by government or individuals. Now in the U.S. there are laws that prohibit discrimination in the workplace based on sexual orientation. In 2005, the Supreme Court cancelled the decision of 1986 in the case of Bowers vs Hardwick. In 2005, the Supreme Court adjudged the decision of 1986 unconstitutional. In December 2010, Barack Obama signed the bill, in which gays and lesbians can openly serve in the U.S. armed forces. And in February 2011, the head of the Ministry of Justice Eric Holder said that at the direction of Barack Obama the Department will no longer rely on the law, that is in force, in the United States since 1996 (Defense of Marriage Act), in which same-sex marriages are not recognized. At the moment, same-sex marriages are legal in five U.S. states - Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, Iowa, New Hampshire - and the District of Columbia.
In conclusion, it is worth saying that hate crimes are bad in all their appearances. To commit a hate crime is not a way out from the world problem. People should find human ways of struggling and changing the world to the better. Those people with a homosexual orientation who want to return to the normal way of life should have the opportunity to visit centers of psychological help. Hate crimes should be punished strictly. People should know that such crimes are not normal for the society. People with a homosexual orientation can have their right to struggle. That’s why there is an international holiday celebrated on the 17th of March. This day is called “International day against homophobia”.
Conclusions and Future Study
In order to imagine the whole picture of hate crimes against gays and lesbians, it is necessary to view the reasons of such crimes, to study real examples that took place in the U.S.A., to learn all the aspects of a homosexual orientation itself, to study laws and government attitude towards this issue. This paper is based upon the researches of Helena L. Alden and Karen F. Parker, April Guasp, Michelle A. Marzullo and Alyn J. Libman and Dr. Stephen Tomsen. Real examples that took place in the U.S.A. were studied in the newspaper – the Huffington Post. The main conclusion of this paper is that hate crimes is a deviation and should be strictly punished. Homosexual orientation is also considered as not normal way of life, but it is believed that way out from the situation, concerning the increase of gays and lesbians nowadays, should be decided in a different, more human way.
Alden, H., & Parker, K. (2005). Gender role ideology, homophobia and hate crime: linking attitudes to macro-level anti-gay and lesbian hate crimes. Gainesville: University of Florida.
Guasp, A. (2013). The gay british crime survey . Homophobic hate crime
Marzullo, M., & Libman, A. (2009). Research overview: Hate crimes and violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Campaign Foundation.
Tomsen, S. (2001). Hate crimes and masculinity: New crimes, new responses and some familiar patterns. University of Newcastle, NSW.