The use of sport enhancing drugs among college students is not a new matter; however, the number of the students using the drugs is alarming and troubling. This paper discusses the increase in usage of sport enhancing drugs among college students. The use of drugs to help in enhancing sports performance is dangerous, and many college students understand the risks and potential of chronic diseases that may occur as a result of the drugs (Gardner, 2012). Many college students are ready to use sport enhancing drugs to help them to achieve the goal in fitness in sports. Additionally, it is hard to get into shape and be the top in a certain sport; so many college students use the drugs as a shortcut to overcome the hardships. For example, many baseball players in USA have been suspended because of using steroid to improve their performance and to hit more home runs. Drugs affect the human body within a very short time and it is very tempting to use the drugs because athletes want to be stronger, faster and bigger (Weiss & Laties, 2012). The American society has been respecting athletes for their outstanding performance. Companies pay millions of dollars to high performing athletes for them to play games. On the other hand, sportsmen in the American society want the attention and are willing to risk their health for fame, money, and power. The trend of using drugs in sports is a contagious issue, and many young athletes will always look for ways to use drugs that will make them secure even if it is not ethical to do so. The drugs in the market are in the first section of the report and the effects of drugs are in the second section. The usage of sport enhancing drugs is in the third section and the last section discusses the issue of physical activity and drugs.
What are the drugs in the market?
The primary sport enhancing drugs include Anabolic steroids, mass builders, Stimulants, 1-androstendione, Cretin, Human Growth Hormone, Diuretics and Erythropoietin. 1-Androstendione helps athletes to train well and to recover quickly after strenuous exercises. The human growth hormone is taken through injection, and it is acquired through a prescription (Weiss & Laties, 2012). Erythropoietin increases performance in athletes by increasing the rate at which oxygen moves in the athletes’ muscles. Erythropoietin is very powerful and extremely dangerous to the degree that it can lead to heart attack, death and stroke. Cretin is the most common sport enhancing drug, is available it over the counter. Cretin enhances the muscles’ ability to release energy. Stimulants increase the performance in sports by increasing blood pressure and the rate of the heart. Stimulants increase the athletes’ endurance and alertness by increasing their alertness. Muscle builders such as anabolic steroids and androgens increase the growth of body muscles by reducing body fat (Gardner, 2012).
Positive effects of drugs
The sport enhancing drugs improve the performance of athletes. The drugs enhance the performance of athletes by facilitating short term goals such as weight management, muscle building, speed and strength. The growth of skeletal muscles increases the efficiency of athletes. (Weiss & Laties, 2012). The sport enhancing drugs stimulate the psychology of athletes. The drugs increase the athletes' beliefs real feelings concerning their abilities and prowess. Some growth hormones and steroids increase the athletes’ alertness by reducing fatigue. The sport enhancing drugs prevent muscle wasting in the athletes. The drugs promote endurance and good performance during exercises. (Lisha & Sussman , 2010).
Negative effect of drugs
Scientific studies indicate that some of the sports enhancing drugs lead to undesirable changes in both male and females. According to the scientific studies, the sport enhancing drugs leave men with small testicles, big breast, baldness, low sperm count and sterility. Similarly, the drugs leave women with deep voices, large clitoris, baldness, excessive hair growth and irregular menstrual cycles. The drugs cause acne, tendon ruptures and low-density proteins in both male and female (Gardner, 2012).Some sport enhancing drugs lead to excess dehydration of the athletes. The sport enhancing drugs flush a lot of fluids from the athletes’ bodies leading to severe dehydration. Excess dehydration leads to fatal electrolyte imbalances namely: Muscle cramps, low blood pressure, potassium deficiency, heart problems and exhaustion (Weiss & Laties, 2012).
Sport enhancing drugs increase the chances of stroke, high blood pressure and heart attack. The use of steroids and growth hormones causes diabetes in athletes that is a risk factor for the heart diseases (Lisha & Sussman, 2010).The sport enhancing drugs cause fatal psychological effects such as violence, rage and aggressive outbursts. The emotion effects from the sport enhancing drugs mark the onset of psychiatric problems such as anxiety and depression (Gardner, 2012). The use of steroids and growth hormones leads to delusions such as paranoid jealousy, impaired judgments, hostility euphoria, feelings of invisibility, poor judgment moodiness and excessive irritability (Lisha & Sussman, 2010).The sport enhancing drugs damage the Liver because the increase the risk of Liver tumors. Liver damage causes jaundice, edema, and hepatitis, swelling arms, abdomen and legs. The liver conditions lead to fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, liver failure and abdominal pain (Lisha & Sussman, 2010).
Usage of sport enhancing drugs
Increasing number of college students has a habit of drug use
The use of sport enhancing drugs among American college students is a growing concern because the number of drug users is increasing tremendously. Many college students use the drugs to fit in the standards of perfect bodies, excellence and to improve athletic performance. Studies show that approximately 2 million people use sport enhancing drugs. Many of the citizens who use the drugs are college students and approximately 12% of USA’s college boys, and 120% of college girls use the drugs (Weiss & Laties, 2012). USA has seen an increasing number of college students using the sport enhancing drugs in the past three years, and this is alarming. Studies on football players at Indiana High school show that 70% of the players use steroids to improve their performance in the sports. According to the NCAA (National College Athletic Association), many athletes use the drugs to improve their recovery and to enhance their performance. Studies indicate that the increasing usage of performance enhancing drugs is due the desire to be physically active and attractive among the athletes (Lisha & Sussman, 2010).
In the past ten years, many college students have been caught using the sport enhancing drugs. Athletes who have used the drugs have become popular throughout the US. Many instances of college students using the drugs have gone unreported it has reached a level whereby all well-performing athletes are vulnerable to the use the sport enhancing drugs. Although the use of sport enhancing drugs increases the value of entertainment through sports, it reduces the real value of sportsmanship among college students. An increasing number of college students that use the drugs shows that colleges are not effective in preventing drug abuse among college students (Lisha & Sussman, 2010).
The reason and motivation of drug abusers
Man college students keep using the drugs even when they know the side effects of the drugs. The college students use the drugs to overcome their insecurities in sports and athletes. Pressure from family and friends tempts the college students to use the sport enhancing drugs because they want to shine in athletes and sports. Sport enhancing drugs motivate the college students because they solve the negative body issues in them. The athletes’ desire to fit in professional athletics prompts them to use the drugs (Lisha & Sussman, 2010). Additionally, the fact that many professional athletes use the sport enhancing drugs encourages the college students to the drugs as well. For example, Mark McGwire, who played for Baseball Cardinals Team, used steroids to improve his performance in his sporting career. While Mark was using the sport enhancing drugs, he achieved a lot and broke numerous records in the baseball game. Similarly, Alzado of Los Angeles Football, used steroids to shine in his career (Weiss & Laties, 2012).
Taking a number of significant health hazard, in exchange of physical appearance
Although the college students are aware of the hazards that come with the use of sport enhancing drugs they still use them. The rising number of college students that use sport enhancing drugs in US is troubling. The intensifying competition in athletics and sporting forces the athletes to look for means of improving their performance (White & Pandina, 2009). College students have a mentality that winning in athletics and sports by all means and at all costs is the best option. The win by all means mentality forces the college students to use performance enhancing drugs in a bid to improve their physical strength (Lisha & Sussman, 2010). Many college students have the perception that the use of performance enhancing drugs correlates with success in sports and athletics thus they undertake the risk hazard of using the drugs in exchange for physical attractiveness. Sports performance and muscularity increases the athletes’ respect from peers. The desire to gain respect from peers, parents, friends, family and the society at large motivates the athletes to use the drugs (White & Pandina, 2009).
Physical activity with drugs
History of healthy physical activity engagement
Throughout the American history, healthy physical activity participation has been extolled. According to the ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine), healthy physical activities promoted cardiovascular fitness. The AHA (American Heart Association) has been issuing recommendations on healthy physical involvement since 1970. The recommendations from the AHA have been focusing on periods of physical activities and cardiovascular endurance. Since 1995, the Federal government has been issuing policies of healthy physical activities in a bid to promote a healthy nation and to reduce lifestyle diseases (White & Pandina, 2009). In October 2008, the government published Healthy Physical activity guidelines for all Americans. The guidelines focus on detailed scientific research on the relationship between health and physical acvities. The guidelines offer recommendations on health physical activity participation for all Americans. The guidelines emphasize on the advantages of healthy exercise to Americans of all ages (Lisha & Sussman, 2010).
The value of athletes (drug to increase performance)
The value of excelling by all means and at the highest point has been replaced the values of teamwork, cooperation, competition and dedication among athletes. Although college students understand that using sport enhancing drugs is risky, unprofessional they use the drugs increase their performance (Hostrup, Bangsbo & Backer, 2014).The use of sport-enhancing drugs in professional athletes is a disaster because many professional athletes’ acquire the drugs from USA. Athletes believe that ant-doping programs in The US are ineffective and inefficient. Athletes find that they increase their performance by using the sport enhancing drugs only (Hostrup, Bangsbo & Backer, 2014).
Illegal drugs use in professional sports
According to the Mitchell Report of 2007, many professional athletes rely on sport-enhancing drugs. Professional athletes depend on sport enhancing drugs, and the number of the drug users keeps rising. Professional athletes use the sport enhancing drugs to gain an extra edge in athletics. The contemporary America society equates winning to success (Lisha & Sussman, 2010). All athletes desire to succeed and shine, and this is an influential stimulus to the usage of sport enhancing drugs. There is no doubt that the sport enhancing drugs make the professional athletes perform well. Professional athletes feel that the use of the sport enhancing drugs is worth the risk because it yields the desired results (Weiss & Laties, 2012). Studies indicate that the number of professional athletics using the sport enhancing drugs increased has increased by 32% in since 2014. A large number of professional athletics is ready to use the drugs because for them life is all about winning. Professional athletes use the drugs to fit in the profession because of peer pressure. Professional athletes in USA use the sport enhancing drugs to boost their concretion, endurance, strength, stamina and adrenaline (White & Pandina, 2009). Although the US constitution outlaws the use of the drugs, many college students access and use the drugs. Professional athletes of these days are faster and more efficient than athletes of previous years because they use drugs in improving their performance. The use of the drugs should be banned because it is unethical, unfair, and irresponsible. Additionally, it interferes with trustworthiness and honesty in the professions of athletics and sports (Hostrup, Bangsbo, & Backer, 2014).
In summary, this research paper has discussed the increase in usage of sport enhancing drugs among college students. The use of sport enhancing drugs among college students is troubling. The primary sport enhancing drugs in the market are Anabolic steroids, mass builders, Stimulants, 1-androstendione, Cretin, Human Growth Hormone, Diuretics and Erythropoietin. The sport enhancing drugs improve the emotions and performance of athletes. The sports enhancing drugs lead to undesirable changes in both men and women. The drugs damage the Liver because they cause Liver tumors. The drugs lead to fatal emotional effects such as violence, rage and aggressive outbursts. The drugs increase the cardiovascular risks such as of stroke and heart attack. The drugs flush a lot of fluids from the athletes’ bodies leading to dehydration. USA has seen an increasing number of college students using the sport enhancing drugs in the past three years. The college students use the drugs to overcome their insecurities in sports and athletes. The athletes’ desire to fit in professional athletics prompts them to use the drugs. Sports performance and muscularity increases the athletes’ respect from peers. The sport enhancing drugs make the professional athletes perform well. Athletes’ desire to succeed and shine stimulates them to use of sport enhancing drugs. Therefore, even though the use of sport enhancing drugs is unethical; many young athletes will always look for ways to use drugs that will make them strong.
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