One of the first results of the UN decision taken by the UN General Assembly in 1946, the formation of Children's Fund of the United Nations (UNICEF) as one of the UN agencies in providing assistance for children in Europe after the Second World War. When in 1950 the term actually ended fund, at the request of Asia, Africa and Latin America to the General Assembly of the UN adopted a decision on the inclusion of UNICEF in the United Nations as a permanent structure whose purpose is to meet the long-term needs of children in developing countries, developing countries (UNICEF, 2016). The words "international" and "extraordinary" were excluded from the title, but known acronym UNICEF survived.
UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe carries out its program activities in the region since 1990, when the Executive Board of UNICEF approved the first allocation to support programs for countries belonging to the named unit.
The mandate of UNICEF and its activities in these countries were due to the problems that were the result of a sharp decline in living standards as a result of political, social and economic changes in the so-called transition period, the beginning of which occurs at the end of 80's - 90's of the last century (UNICEF, 2016). That UNICEF in implementing its policy primarily takes into account the mentality and personal conditions of the region and the State. Therefore, UNICEF policy has highly individual approach to each state.
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The main factors that identified the main direction of UNICEF’s policy in the region, were the following:
- The reduction or complete abolition of the system of social servicing of families, including the children's preschool institutions;
- Limited state funding for the health care system, including hospitals;
- Reducing the employment of women and youth in all spheres of production;
- Loss of the society moral, ethical and legal guidelines and, consequently, the growth of juvenile crime, the spread of alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution and so on.
Acquired from the beginning of regional experience and knowledge of the problems, difficulties and required priorities enabled UNICEF uniform rules of a common platform approach and action, conceptual framework that made the following conclusions:
- Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by all countries in the region, there is a legitimate basis and should define the scope of cooperation with governments, UNICEF, outside governmental organizations and other potential partners;
- The focus should be on helping countries with the development of civil society in order to provide sustainable activities for children and promoting the creation of organizations in which the needs and rights of children are set as a major priority (UNICEF, 2016). UNICEF has to act as a kind of "catalyst", from governments seeking public institutions and potential donors to mobilize resources and actions. These actions should aim at ensuring such a state that the rights of children were in the spotlight and took a leading role in programs of continuing the process of reforms to build a highly moral law democracy. In collaboration with other UN agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, UNICEF promotes programs to provide cheap services at community level in the provision of primary health care, nutrition, primary education, water and sanitation, elimination of gender inequality and development (UNICEF, 2016).
UNICEF, (2016). UNICEF | Children’s Rights & Emergency Relief Organization. Unicef.org. Retrieved 28 January 2016, from http://www.unicef.org.