Thesis of the article by George M. Fredrick is to explain the models of ethnic relations by Buchanan concerning the ethnic relations models among them, assimilation, separatism, hierarchy, and pluralism. This has defined and explained on how different groups relate and relate. Based on’ Frederickson essay on ethnic relation.’
Buchanan in the article appears to endorse the ethnical hierarchy cultural pluralism because it is fully inclusive and it takes its basis on the free choices of people to build their ethnic identities of their own. Cultural pluralism celebrates various perspectives about the different and diverse culture in the society. It is considered healthy since it includes equality in rights and mutual understanding issues aimed at ensuring civic responsibilities that will ensure democracy in the state.
Individuals over the years were civilized some were uncivilized , there was a revolution in the that evolution from barbarism and slavery that had been rampant over the century blacks had accepted the idea that there were standards universally accepted on civilization that they needed to adopt and abide by it. The whites however believed that Africans had the capability on to receive and reach the same heights.
As a concept, cultural pluralism was taking a major twist in that boas and his assistance took and studied every culture on its own basis and integrated as well. They rejected the findings and claims made by social evolutionists who had ranked cultures based on civilization. The however believed that cultures functioned best when singled out and integrated culture, they favored autonomy of each culture.
Ethnic diversity was validated in an afford into adopting new concept within the United States, there arose a reaction which negatively affected the ‘Americanization’. Actually, the pioneers of the cultural pluralism were cosmopolitan, who criticized the issue of immigration in America, and for example, the Jews valued so much their culture and did not want to be dissolved.
Restrictions on Immigration had relieved racial and ethnic anxieties, the status of the immigrant5s improved as they got involved in various activities for example, involvement in politics , in economics and others professional achievements. The World War II brought about revulsion in that was against genocidal, eugenic experiments that were for Nazis and ant-Semitism. all the America were considered to be white in the new revolution and in many instances the essence of ethnicity became equal as compared to the old –stock of old ancestry. Americans become more salient in a way as they devised ways of living in an amicable manner as compared to other races for example the African American.
Civil rights that arose came up with strategies on the American ethnicity; they aimed at legalizing the racial ethnicity that consists of southern states. The civil rights saw it that the government desists from forcing racial segregation and denying the blacks in the region on voting rights
Buchanan stated that as much as we are far in achieving ethnic tolerance and racial biasness, a more democratic way is needed to do away with the ethnic hierarchicalism by Euro-American majority. They have the chance to make the country to be ungovernable before the reach a given level of understanding.
I do agree though partially with Buchanan on the mode he suggests best for America in that the cultural pluralism is best mode. it considers the freedom of individuals to be studied differently in their culture , he also appreciates that culture is diverse and wide , Buchanan however should have considered other factors that would bring humanity to unity for example social aspects and economical.
There is need to integrate all the diverse cultures in ensuring amicable and diverse cultures and the models to be adapted as suggest by Buchanan is cultural pluralism.
In 1945, there was massive resistance to integration in Virginia and the queen to quickly embrace the change. She argues that since she visited Jamestone in 1957, her country have realized greater diversity like the commonwealth of Virginia. The united state of America was realized to have experienced a greater social change. Buchanan argues that both nations are more diverse. The best-used example was Virginia where it was said to be the massacre of thirty-two students and teachers by an immigrant mad man. Muslim preachers preach hatred in their mosques; give support to Pakistani bombers in their madarasas. Insecurity is also at its peak due to the rise in crime rates, and in that, connection people fear to walk in parts of London.
However, the Britain of tony Blair and Gordon brown is more diverse than the Britain of Victoria and lord Salisbury. Thus, this clearly shows that there is greater diversity in them. America today is divided by race, religion, and language amongst others, which were the ones that were uniting it. Hence, there is diversity in these issues. They are no longer united by a common culture since there is diversity in culture, which have made peaceful coexistence a myth.
There has also been diversity between the Protestants and Catholics where they once disagreed whether drinks like beer and spirits are wicked according to their culture. They once disagreed whether some 45 million babies who were unborn should be annihilated. Echo Jefferson once said that he trembled for his country once he reflected that God is just. We also see the diversity in colour by the Americans since in the 1960s; they opened their doors to people of different colour i.e. both white and black. This washed away the unity that was brought by a common culture, history, and tradition. As time goes, the Americans of European decent will be less than its population that have created worries that they will soon belong to the minority. In California for instance, white Americans are already a minority and it is the case in Texas and Hawaii.
The Americans are now regretting to have accepted diversity in the past since it have made them a weaker nation that the time of Eisenhower and Kennedy. In 2006 in the month of October, Robert Putnam did a research on diversity in America whose findings were reported by the financial times. Robert is a very influential political scientist in the world who did his research at Harvard University and revealed the negative effects of diversity. He explained that if the society is more diverse, there is likelihood of mistrust amongst its inhabitants in all experiences and fields.
The effect of diversity has gone up more than it was thought. People trust neither those who do not look like them nor those who like them. There is total mistrust amongst them.Los Angeles is the most diverse place in the world’s history and thus trust was found to be lowest there. Its inhabitants clashed regularly since they could not communicate or interact with one another, clearly, defined by the award winning film ‘crash’ which was performed in los Angelis . Another 100 million people are expected in the united states by 2050 hence diversity is expected to go up which will lead to greater mistrust.
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