1. What is (are) the independent variables?
When dealing with procrastination, from the article, the independent variables include time, such that while a person is becoming a poor self regulator, the time they have to complete a task remains fixed and unaffected. For instance, if a university student is unable to complete an assignment in time, the time allocated will not change but the quality of work will be affected.
2. What is (are) the dependent variables?
On the other hand, there are dependant variables and these include the quality of work that somebody will deliver in the given time. The other dependent variable highlighted in the article is character and commitment from the person responsible to accomplish a task.
3. Are there any important variables that might have been included but were not? If so, list them and label them as to type. (Chu, & Choi, 2005).
The other variable that should have featured is trend of the procrastinators from when they are students through when they are at work and perhaps outside these environments. The essence of this variable is to establish whether someone can change their attitude from being procrastinators to being non procrastinators. Hypotheses
1. Cite the hypotheses, if any, tested in this study.
The first hypothesis cited is that both non procrastinators and active procrastinators will occasionally report more constructive and purposeful use of time as opposed to passive procrastinators. The reason behind this is that self sufficiency tends to precede reality such that time use will be oriented with a person’s perception.
Non procrastinators and active procrastinators are able to manage their time more than passive procrastinators are.
This hypothesis is supported by sufficient arguments in this article.
The second hypothesis is on the dimension that both active procrastinators and non procrastinators will report stronger self efficacy beliefs as opposed to when a passive procrastinators would do. This is because when somebody wants to achieve something, they will think that they can do it no matter what stands in their way (Kenrick, 2011).
Non procrastinators and active procrastinators report a high self efficacy belief than will be reported of passive procrastinators.
This hypothesis is also supported by relevant arguments.
The third hypotheses cited is that both non procrastinators and procrastinators will report a higher level of extrinsic motivation that will be reported by passive procrastinators.
This is a situation that is always apparent where there is a motivation oriented environment and the target is to ensure that deliveries are not delayed.
Active procrastinators and non procrastinators report a high level extrinsic motivation while passive procrastinators will report a high level of intrinsic motivation.
This hypothesis is supported by arguments and literature in the article.
1. In a sentence or two, what is the context of the problem discussed in the literature?
In the article, the problem being discussed is around a student’s commitment to their work and their ability to get organized and leverage on their work without compromising on the quality of the work. At every institution, the behavioural dimensions may override the attention of the students to concentrate in their work and commit themselves to their work in their field of specialization. There is also the comparative approach to understanding the character of active procrastinators to that of the passive group as well (Chu, & Choi, 2005)..
2. Literature reviewa) What is the magnitude (see guidelines) of the literature review?
The magnitude of literature review is limited to learning and working environment as opposed to the manifestation of the same in other fields where creativity is precedence. Somebody might not be cut out for class setting of learning and their patience could not be tested right in those environments. b) How empirical and up-to-date is it?
The relevance of the information in this article is the fact that it is considerably recent data and as such it reflects the most recent data of the world population today. The information however may not be empirical enough in the sense that the sample group used is a student population which might not necessarily be the case in the business world.
c) Is the literature section well organized (introduction, subheadings, summary)?
The organization of the article in its entirety is such that, no information presented may not get to be overlooked at al. the order of headings and subheading s is quite impressive to the readers of the same information if it were to be build there (Chu, & Choi, 2005). d) Try to summarize the literature section in a sentence or two.
The issue of procrastination can never be dealt away with however, understanding it will ensure that working environments are hospitable to both active and passive procrastinators.Operational Definitions
1. How did the author operationalize each of the independent variables?
The way the author operationalize time as an independent variable is that, it compared the efficiency of active procrastinators versus that of a passive one. The way each responds to a task will be reflected as their efficiency. 2. How did the author operationalize each of the dependent variables? The way the author operationalized the independent variables is by highlighting how they are affected by a student’s attitude towards their work. Research Design1. What type of research design was used? (i.e., true experimental, quasi-experimental, ex-post-facto, correlation, regression, etc.)
In establishing the facts about procrastination, the kind of research design used is a correlation research design. The character of those who are procrastinators will be correlated to the kind of work they engage in and the environment they are in.
2. Discuss the internal reliability/validity of the design.
The validity of the design is based on the context that every circumstance surrounding school or working environment is governed by timelines and as such, how each of the characters under analysis respond is highlighted.
3. How externally valid does the design appear?
The design is deemed valid externally at a greater scale due to the fact that it incorporates an array of parameters when evaluating the procrastinator’s behaviour in various environments.4. Statistical analyses. What statistical tests were used?
The statistical analysis used here was to establish the character of the active and passive procrastinators and to establish how each respond to stress and perhaps compare their response with the expected response.
Discussion/Conclusion1. Briefly, precisely, and accurately describe the findings of the study.
According to these articles, the findings established that procrastination varies from one person to the other and as such, there are various types of procrastinations. The active procrastinators find it difficult to complete their work within the timelines while the passive type is able to carry out their duties with ease and in an organized approach. 2. Does the article include an adequate and clear summary of the results?
The article highlights although not in detail, the information about these findings on procrastination. 3. Briefly state a conclusion that could be drawn from the study and a recommendation you would make based on that conclusion.
While it is may easy to establish how procrastination influence student performance, the same observation can be used to correctively manage staff for instance and ensure that they are able to complete their work in time without having to rush over.
Ferrari, J. R., Johnson, J., & McCown, W. G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance:
Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.
Ferrari, J. R. (2010). Still procrastinating?: The no-regrets guide to getting it done. Hoboken,
N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Kenrick, D. T. (2011). Sex, murder, and the meaning of life: A psychologist investigates how
evolution, cognition, and complexity are revolutionizing our view of human nature. New York: Basic Books.
Chu, A.H. C, & Choi, J. I. N. (2005). Rethinking procrastination: Positive effects of “active” procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 145(3), 245-264.