In current historical and general cultural situation cannot be absolutely independent existence of individual cultures. The contact of the cultures often causes conflict between them, the struggle for supremacy of its priorities, the desire to minimize the importance of the values and achievements of the "opponent".
In the history of interaction between East and West, a special role is played by the Islamic-Christian relations. And Christians and Muslims have always been inherent in the consciousness of a certain spiritual 'community, going back to a single source of Middle Eastern Abrahamic tradition, while at the same time, awareness of the essential otherness of their cultural and religious experience. The prevalence of feelings of otherness on the realization of community often led to tragic consequences.
In this essay we will compare and contrast Islam and Catholicism (as a branch of Christianity) in the following aspects:
- The emergence of religion
- Founder of the religion
- Sacred texts
- Fundamentals and features of faith
- The main symbols
The emergence of religion
Islam (From Arabic: "surrender to God", "submission") - one of the world's religions. Islam originated among the Arab tribes of western Arabia in the early 7th century. This was the period of the collapse of the very foundations of an ancient society (including and paganism) and the elevation of the cultural centers of trade (Mecca, Medina).
Christianity arose in the I century of a new era in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire in Palestine. A new era and begins its countdown to the birth of Jesus Christ. This order of chronology has been proposed in the VI. n. e. Before this, all the Mediterranean countries were chronology of the founding of Rome. By this reckoning the birth of Jesus Christ accomplished in the year 747 from the foundation of Rome.
The modern Catholic Church considers the history of the Church before the Great Schism in 1054 as a history. According to the doctrine of the Catholic Church, the Catholic (Universal) Church was "made known to the prototypes already from the beginning of the world, destined to the marvelous stories of the people of Israel in the Old Testament and is based in recent times, was through the outpouring of the Holy Spirit and will gain glorious completion at the end of the century." Just as Eve was created from Adam's rib asleep, the Church was born from the pierced heart of Christ, who died on the Cross
The Founder of Religion
The founder of Islam was the Prophet Muhammad (c. 570-632), of a kind of one of the major tribes of the Quraysh. Prone to loneliness, Mohammed betrayed the pious reflection.
According to legend, angerl have split Muhammad’s chest and washed his heart, and in 610 at the age of 40, he received a revelation on Mount Hira during the 40-day fast, and the words of the heavenly messenger Gabriel (Archangel Gabriel) etched in the heart of the Prophet as "inscription." Muhammad with a small group of followers suffered persecution and moved to 622, from his native Mecca to Medina. Muhammad's struggle for the establishment of a new religion - the belief in one God (Allah) - ended with a victory over the pagan Mecca in 630.
The founder of Christianity is Jesus Christ (Jesus of Nazareth, Bethlehem 2 BC - 33 AD Jerusalem), the son of God and the God-man (ie, combines the nature of the divine and human). The second person of the Trinity in the structure. God the Son embodies the Word of God, the mediator between God and men, by the mouth of the Lord which proclaims the truth of Revelation.
He was the son of a poor carpenter from the city of Galilee. Up to 30 years living in uncertainty, then delivered a sermon before anyone has not heard the teaching. Around it formed a small circle of disciples. But the disciples did not understand him, numerous enemies pursued him until he triumphed over him, betraying his shameful death on the cross as a criminal and a villain. Jesus Christ died on the cross "for the sins of men," and then rose again, and ascended into heaven.
The Qur'an (Arabic: "Reading aloud by heart", under the influence of Syria. "Keriana" - "reading of the sacred text", "edification") - the main Muslim holy book, recording a sermon preached by Muhammad in the form of "prophetic revelations". The Quran consists of 114 chapters (suras), dissected by 6204 verses (ayat). Most of these poems is a mythological character, and only about 500 verses contain provisions relating to the rules of behavior of Muslims. Another authoritative and binding on all Muslims source of law is the Sunna ("Tradition"), consisting of numerous short stories (hadith) of the judgments and actions of Muhammad himself.
Between the Quran and the Sunnah there is a fundamental difference. The Quran is the word of Allah. He was never created as Allah himself, he is eternal. The Qur'an revealed to Prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Hadith is a saying of the Prophet (ie, human) that have been uttered at some point, that is, have their "beginning". At the same time, in all cases, the hadith should not be confused with the word of Allah. The hadith has only explanatory status. The Quran is the same foundation, the foundation of faith.
Sharia (Islamic law) is integrally connected with Islam and its teachings. This is a set of religious and legal norms, based on the Quran and the Sunnah, containing norms of state, inheritance, criminal and matrimonial law. Islam considers the legal establishment, as part of a single law and order. Hence the dictates and prohibitions in the rules of Sharia, also attributed to divine meaning.
The basis of the Christian faith is the Bible, which is a staunch supporter of the Word of God (aka " the Scriptures "). Is a collection of two books called the Old Testament, viewed from Judaism, and the New Testament formed in the depths of Christianity itself.
The Old Testament - is part of the Bible, a set of Jewish holy books. In the Old Testament, collected varied in form and content of religious works, which were created during the great historical period (roughly from the XIII to the II century BC)
The Old Testament was canonized by Christianity since the emergence of the latter, because Christianity is based on Judaism
New Testament - is the primary (along with the Old Testament) literary source of Christianity, which is the second part of the Christian Bible.
Christians believe that Jesus Christ ushered in the New Testament, which is the fulfillment of the Covenant of Moses in the book of Revelation, but at the same time replacing it.
So books about the work of Jesus Christ and his disciples are called the New Testament
Fundamentals and features of faith
Islam includes the following basic tenets which recognition for the truth, and the unquestioning execution is considered obligatory for all Muslims :
- Belief in Allah. Each sura of the Qur'an (except the 9th) begins with his praise : " In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful "
God created everything that exists. He is omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent, the absolute ruler of the world that controls nature and society. The Qur'an states that piety is obedience to God. In contrast to the Christian doctrine of the divine Trinity Islam says that God is one. Belief in angels, demons. In the representation of Muslims is incorporeal beings to do the will of Allah.
- The belief in the sanctity of the Koran. He is the Word of God, the divine revelation that Allah conveyed in the form of visions Muhammad over a period of about 23 years, ie the rest of his life. Therefore, in Muslim theology adopted the dogma of the uncreated, eternal Qur'an.
A Muslim believes in the immortality of the soul leaving the body on the day of her death, and resurrection from the dead on the day of Judgment. What is the destiny of every man that he destined to - heaven or hell, according to the Muslim faith, Allah will identify himself at the Last Judgment. Muhammad's intercession can mitigate the fate of sinners, to induce God to forgive the sinner and send it to heaven.
In Islam very strongly expressed belief in the divine predestination. Everything is subject to the will of God. The will of God is not bound by nothing and incomprehensible. Major religious precepts of Islam are formulated in the form of the five " pillars of faith " (lasso -ud -din). Following these pillars is the most important duty of a Muslim.
The main provisions of the Christian church is dogma - identified 12 members of the Creed.
Among them, the most important tenets are: the doctrine of the nature of God, the trinity of God, the incarnation, redemption, ascension, resurrection, etc. So as a result of the first seven ecumenical councils formed Orthodox doctrine. This doctrine is played every day in the form of Christian believers prayer - " I Believe" as a sign of recognition of the main provisions of the Doctrine of the Faith.
The main symbols
The symbols of Islam are the star and crescent, Symbols of Christianity are Orthodox and Catholic crosses.
Without Roots: The West, Relativism, Christianity, Islam by Pope Benedict XVI, formerly Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (Basic Books, 0465006345, 2006).
Catechism of the Catholic Church English translation (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2000). ISBN 1-57455-110-8
H. W. Crocker III, Triumph—The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church: A 2,000-Year History (Prima Publishing, 2001). ISBN 0-7615-2924-1