Globalization is a dynamic process whereby countries tend to step up its various sectors majorly communication, leading to integration in different perspectives. This process has for many years been appreciated for its advantages. However, Globalization has in the current days become a threat to many countries due to the disadvantages that it brings about. For instance, if a country integrates its economy, the results may be the attraction of investors, whose aim is not only to invest, but also to accomplish their ill missions. Some people may come into the country as investors but with a hidden agenda of terrorism or other illegal activities. This paper is going to focus on how globalization has brought about criminal organizations, as well as, allowing the provision of illegal goods and services to people all over the world in the expanding market.
There are two major types of crime that may be attributed to globalization; these are international crime and transnational crime. Transnational crime is those acts that are against the laws or rather the regulations of more than one country. These countries must be having a common border since the criminal activity is the one that should have the capability or the ability to affect the countries involved. For a crime to be dubbed transnational, it does not necessarily need to cross borders between countries but it may happen in such a manner that its occurrence in the host country will in turn affect the other neighboring country in one way or the other.
A good example is the fact that the provision of illegal goods affects consumers directly or indirectly. On the other hand, international crimes are those acts that are not in line with the international norms. Some conditions must be met for a crime to qualify to be termed international. The first condition requires that the event or act should be that which can be answerable under the international law, in the international criminal court. This means that the conduct of the defendant should be against the international treaties. Secondly, there should be liability on the illegal action. In this case, the offender should be answerable and be charged or sued when found guilty. The third condition is whereby there exists no adherence to the criminal norms as stated in the international and customary law treaties. Therefore if all the above conditions prevail, then we can comfortably conclude any activity, conduct or behavior linked to the three conditions as an international crime.
Transnational crime, which can also be referred to as either inter or intra border crime, has three major divisions. The first division is the provision of illegal goods and provision of illegal services. Illegal goods include drugs, and harmful weapons, while Illegal services, refer to those acts against the societal norms, such as; human trafficking and prostitution and also the intrusion of business and government to include fraudulent acts, and not forgetting corruption, which has become a dominant transnational crime in many developing countries.
Provision of illegal goods as part of transnational crime may involve activities such as Inter boundary sell of illegal drugs. This act is common especially in areas that are frequently visited by tourists since reliable sources indicate that such regions have an increasing influx of illegal goods. Most of the victims involved in this crime may include school drop outs; who live below the poverty line, and also the jobless who ought to do any job so as to earn income for their survival .The impact of this event may indirectly transpire to transnational crime in that, those abusing such drugs may become a threat to the society.
Weapon trafficking is another form of illicit activity that falls under the provision of illegal goods. This is evident in developing countries with low per capita income such that those in authority tend to engage themselves in such activities as a result of their mediocre salaries, so as to increase their pay and meet their daily needs at the expense of the country’s security. Counterfeiting, which is part and parcel of transnational crime, can be defined as the imitation of an authentic commodity and falls under the provision of illicit goods. This is commonly experienced in product market where various forms of counterfeiting exist, and they include; forgery of money, copy cutting of commodities among others.
Stolen goods or property, transported to other areas for the purpose of reselling can also be another form of transnational crime. A good example is the incidences where cars get stolen and their registration numbers get changed so as to conceal the original identity. Provision of illegal services such as commercial sex can also be categorized in this subdivision of Tran’s national crime. This involves exchange of sexual favors for money for both men and women. The underlying cause of these services being offered is the abject poverty that forces people to resort to selling themselves so as to be able to meet their personal needs and the needs of their dependents. Commercial sex may also take the form of sugar mummies or sugar daddies blackmailing the young generation by spoiling them with wealth. This is the most common phenomena prevailing in many parts of the world. In this case, the offenders are usually punished before a court of law.
Human trafficking can be explained as a modern form of slavery. It involves uprooting people from their native land unwillingly for the purpose of torturing them or using them as their servants in very devastating conditions. This may also take the form of kidnapping whereby the person conducting the crime may ask for a ransom so as to set free the kidnapped subject. In addition, the Intrusion of business and government to include fraud; whereby one tends to deliberately manipulate the truth so that they may gain unfairly or unjustly is another form of Tran’s national crime. This is commonly experienced in the field of accounting whereby deliberate errors are committed in the books of accounts with the pretense of giving a true and fair view. Such a crime is usually minimized by the deployment of external auditors to audit such books in an organization.
Corruption, which involves dishonest acts by people given opportunities in authority so as to gain personal benefits by engaging themselves in bribery, can be dubbed as a transnational crime. This is seen in government agencies or organizations whereby those in power may ask for bribes so as to carry out their legitimate responsibilities required of them. Money laundering can also be included under the above category is the channeling of money acquired illegally, so that no one can have a trace of the fact that it was acquired from crime proceeds .
In conclusion, globalization can be seen as a major cause of both international and transnational crime since it is seen that globalization will lead to increased communication among people, which may in turn lead to illegal trade among the interacting parties thereby resulting in crime. Therefore, for its effect to be positive, strict measures should not only be put in place but also be implemented thoroughly with no mercy.