Theory of justice is one of the political philosophy and moral works that has been developed in the twentieth century. It is very influential work of John Rawls’s which has great impact. In this theory, John attempts to develop a philosophy; in this philosophy he generates political structures which are intended to preserve individual liberty as well as social justice. In this attempt, John tries to counteract the predominant theory which explained that justice is intended for the greatest number of people to provide the greatest good. Therefore in this theory John looks into a person who is very ignorant of the happenings in his society, and he acknowledges that this person should be granted justice according to his position in the society without looking into the individual status. This implies that the system of justice which will be generated for this individual will be from his original position thus will provide justice even to the lowest in the society, unlike the utilitarianism where justice is doing good for only the good people.
In his argument, John identifies the need to consider earlier theories on political philosophy. In this theory John agrees with the theorist and confirms that these people agreed to choose the person to govern them and this ensured a just society because they did so without sacrificing their happiness. In fact they didn’t sacrifice the liberty of any individual in doing the same. Therefore in this theory John addresses issues of social equality, democracy and liberty that exist between society and the individuals within the society. Thus as discussed above this theory intends to promote all social primary good. It tries to establish that income and wealth, liberty and opportunity should be equally distributed to all including the least favored, and the distribution should be in a way that self respect is not changed or compromised. On this basis, this theory is in line with the universal health care. For instance universal health care attempts to ensure that all citizens notwithstanding their health conditions or their capacity to pay for the health care services should be given equal access to quality health insurance coverage and affordable medical care. John wants a society where every individual in the society is given equal chance to meet social justice of liberty and opportunities, wealth and income as well as democracy, and the universal health care attempts to meet the needs of all equally, including the poor and the rich.
I don’t agree with the Aquinas that nature provides the basis for knowing what is right and what is wrong. This do not mean that am supporting the immoral practices like incest, for sure am not in favor of the sexual practices that are against the doctrine, I don’t accept the sexual immorality and I agree that sex is for procreation. But we must not relate it with nature, because if we are to go this way then we might end up accepting incest and immoral sexual acts. For instance science has found that some animals like primates do have sex not necessarily for procreation. Further studies by scientists have also revealed that these primates do have internal and external sexual intercourse not necessarily for procreation. Therefore if we are to go by this, then we will be accepting the reverse of what Aquinas is suggesting.