Sovereignty: The word sovereignty means having paramount authority over a polity. The concept is, if a land is sovereign, then no external force has the right to intervene in the internal matters of the land.
International Organization: International organization has international presence, scope and membership. Such organizations operate across various nations. There are two categories of international organizations: INGOs and NGOs.
Actor: Any force that takes part in any political scenario, and has a role to play in it is known as an actor.
Anarchy: Anarchy is the absence of any government or the condition of disorder that leads to absolute freedom of a person living in the state.
Globalization: Globalization is the developmental process that leads to international influence of businesses or organizations.
Culture: Culture can be described as the social behavior and customs of a community of people. It is the manifestation of human intellect taken together.
Cultural literacy: E.D. Hirsch coined this particular term. It stands for the ability to comprehend and participate in a cultural milieu. The term is analogous to literacy.
Cultural diffusion: Cultural diffusion is the act of diffusion of ideas, styles, language, religions, and so on among people of a single culture or from different cultures.
Cultural imperialism: It is the cultural side of imperialism. Imperialism in this case stands for creating and maintaining unequal relationships between people of different communities in the favor of the more powerful one.
Cultural trait: Cultural trait can be defined as any particular trait that an individual has acquired owing to his social life. Cultural trait is transmitted through communication with people.
Ethnocentricity: Ethnocentricity is the process of evaluation of other cultures based on the preconceptions that have roots in the customs and beliefs of one’s culture.
Attitudes: Attitudes are the ways of thinking regarding something.
Aesthetics: Aesthetics is the set of principles that govern the appreciation of beauty. It is a branch of philosophy that delved deep into the questions regarding arts and beauty.
Body language: It is the movements and postures that are both conscious and unconscious. It is through these movements and postures that feelings and attitudes of a person are communicated.
Caste: Caste stands for a social class of people who has inheritance of specific privileges or is treated as distinct.
Hague: It is a city in Western Netherlands that is the site of the government and the royal residence. The International Court of Justice is also situated in the city.
Norms: Norms are the standard set of actions that are taken to be proper in a particular situation.
Feminism: Feminism is a philosophy that fights for the equal rights of the women folk of the society. It fights against patriarchy, and vehemently opposes any sort of female exploitation in the society.
Post Modernism: Post Modernism signifies the departure from the Modernist movement. It is a new concept and style in architecture, art and criticism. The era constitutes of self-conscious usage of the style and conventions of the previous times.
Epistemology: It is the theory of knowledge that deals with scope, methods and validity. It delves into the distinction between justified belief and opinion.
Global System: Global System stands for a system that acts beyond the national or geographical borders. It is used or developed in the global context.
Customs: Customs is the duty that gets levied by a government on the goods that are imported to the nation.
Hofstede framework: Hofstede framework goes on to compare cultures based on five parameters. These are Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity vs. Femininity, Long-Term Orientation, Individualism vs. Collectivism.
Social group: Social group can be taken as group of people who interact among themselves, and have a sense of unity among themselves. The people in the group share similar characteristics.
Social mobility: It is the movement of the people, families and household within the different layers in an open system of societal stratification.
Social stratification: The term refers to the categories of people in a society that is ascribed to them. The stratification is based on power, money and status.
Subculture: Subculture stands for the cultural group within a larger culture in a land. A subculture’s beliefs and practices vary from that of the larger cultures many times.
Values: Values are the standard of behavior or principles, using which a person judges what is important in his or her life.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: It is a federal law that was enacted in the year, 1977. The act prohibits companies from bribing the foreign officials or political leaders for the purpose of getting business opportunities.
Christianity: Christianity is a religion that was propounded by Jesus Christ. There are two sects in Christianity: Protestants and Catholic. It is one of the most popular religions in the world.
Islam: Islam is a religion that talks about the worship of Allah. It is a popular religion in the Middle East and Asian countries.
Hinduism: Hinduism is a religion that is very popular in India. The religion talks of idol worship and spreads the word of harmony and peace.
Buddhism: Buddhism is a religion that was started by Lord Buddha. It is one of the most peaceful and serene religions in the world.
Confucianism: It is the system of ethical teachings and philosophy that was propounded by the famous Chinese philosopher, Confucius. Confucianism was developed by Mencius.
Judaism: Judaism is the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people. It is one of the major religions in the world.
Shinto: Shinto is a Japanese religion that propagates the adoration of ancestors and nature spirits. The religion dates back to the 8th century. The people following the religion believe in kami in both living and nonliving beings.
Capitalism: Capitalism is the mode of economy that stresses on extracting work from the labors in return of money given to them. Capitalism aims at industries, business and development. There are social class distinctions in this economic order.
Civil law: Civil law deals with the private relations among the people of a nation state.
Common law: It is a part of the English law that has its roots in judicial precedent and custom.
Coalition government: When one single political party fails to obtain majority, it takes the support of other parties to form the government. The government thus formed has many parties involved in the coalition. It is, hence, known as a coalition government.
Communism: Communism is a political ideology propounded by Karl Marx. Communism opposes Capitalism, and spreads the message of class struggle. It aims at abolishing class distinction.
Confiscation: When a private property is legally taken over by the state authority, the procedure is known as confiscation.
Democracy: It is a system of governance where the representatives of the people in the government are chosen by the people themselves through the right of suffrage.
Legal system: It is a system for enforcing and interpreting the laws of a nation state.
Localization: It is the process through which a service or product gets adapted to a specific culture and language.
Nationalism: Nationalism is a political ideology that believes in the omnipotence of the nation state. Nationalism preaches love for the nation, and promotes patriotism among people.
Nationalization: When the state authority takes over a specific sector of industry or business within the boundaries of the nation, the process is known as nationalization.
Parliamentary democracy: In a system of parliamentary democracy the executive branch gets its democratic legitimacy from the legislature or parliament. Thus, the legislative and executive branches are intertwined.
Pluralism: It is a system where two or more groups, principles, states or authorities exist side by side at the same time.
Political risk: The term stands for the kind of risk that is faced by investors, governments and corporations. It can be comprehended with foresight or investment.
Political system: The term refers to the set of institutions like political parties, lobby groups, trade unions, and so on and the relationship among them. These institutions are governed by the political norms and rules.
Representative democracy: It is a form of government that is based on the principle elected people who represent the masses.
Secular totalitarianism: Secular totalitarianism refers to the state formation where the state has the entire authority over all aspects of public and private life. The state is secular in nature.
Socialism: It is a political and economic theory that advocates that the ways of production, exchange and distribution should be in the hands of the community as a whole. It aims at the cooperative management of economy of the state.
Theocracy: It is the system of government where the priest uses the name of the God to rule the state.
Theocratic law: It refers to the law that is imposed in the name of religion and God.
Totalitarian system: It is a highly centralized system where one party takes control of all the aspects in the lives of the citizens. Any opposing political or cultural expression is curbed.
Right-wing totalitarianism: Right-wing totalitarianism aims to control all the aspects of the citizen’s lives, and opposes any leftist ideological perspective. The operations of the state comply with rightist ideology.