A theory is a logical explanation to the existence of a given phenomenon or situation. It acts as a basic principle that to explain why something is in existence or is happening. For any explanation to be approved as a theory there has to be evidence and a level of truth to support a theory. Theories act as the basic explanation towards getting deeper knowledge as to why certain scenarios are in existence. In many cases for any explanation to be termed as a theory, it must have some truth. One of the most notable theories is the evolution theory. Charles Darwin developed the Darwin’s theory of evolution that has created mixed reactions. Some people have criticized evolution and dismissed it as a theory. The arguments against evolution being a theory is due to lack of scientific prove to verify the existence of life in the beginning.
However, there is substantial evidence to prove that evolution is a theory. The Darwin’s theory evolution explains how creatures have evolved into different forms with the environment playing a key role. One of the key characteristics of a theory is that it has to be proved. Existence of different forms of living things in the past can easily be proved. Archeological artifacts that have been discovered show different forms of human beings. With evolution explaining the existence of different creatures and changing into different forms, this is a clear support of evolution being a theory. It is possible to chemically and biologically prove the existence of different forms of creatures that have over time developed and evolved. Any theory has to be based on facts and truth that can be proved, with this evidence it is possible to prove the facts in the evolution theory.
The health sector has been faced with one key challenge as the infectious disease that has been extinct start to reemerge. Various factors have been identified as the reasons for the reemergence of these diseases.
One of the main reasons for the reemergence of these diseases is the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics. The drugs that have been used for long have no effects on the microorganisms since as they evolve they generate resistance to the drugs. Scientists and researchers have also attributed the increased rate of human migration to the reemergence of the diseases. As people travel for various reasons such as business and tourism, there are high chances of disease transmission. This has mainly been observed in the cities where there is overpopulation and minimal resources. With issues such as poor housing and sanitation being experienced in these cities, there are high chances of disease infection. With some of the travellers missing vaccination, this increases the chances of disease reemergence and rates of infection get higher. With poor sanitation especially in the urban areas and pollution, human beings are more prone to the disease carrying vectors. Climate change has also contributed to the reemergence of some of the diseases considered extinct. The hosts and vectors of these diseases are able to develop in different climates. With the effects of global warming and increasing temperatures, the disease carrying vectors are able to reproduce at a higher rate. Climatic change can be attributed as a leading factor to the emergence of pathogens that were once considered extinct. Human activities such as irrigation have also been identified as a reason to the reemergence of these diseases.
Most anthropologists believe that there is a relationship between human beings and other primates. They believe that they can be able to trace the origin of man from understanding how the primates existed.It is believed that evolutions mechanisms among human beings can be explained by understanding the behavior of other primates. Cultural behavior in non-human primates also gives the anthropologists an understanding of other animal species. This knowledge is vital in understanding the development of different animal species.
One of the most studied animals is the chimpanzee which anthropologist have identified to have behavior that is more complex. The primates are able to make traps used for trapping termites. The chimpanzees insert twigs inside the termite mounds and once the termites start climbing on the mounds, they are captured. These primates are also involved in making other tools, which include toothpicks from the twigs of trees. Capuchins, which are monkey species found in South Africa, have also been studied by anthropologists. These monkeys use tree leaves to extract water found in the tree’s cavities. Researchers have also studied the culture of these animals and found out that they used to make stone tools. The tools were used to crash their food into small pieces as well as cracking the palm nuts. In the study of the cultural practices of non-human primates; anthropologists have identified some traits, which are similar to those in human beings. Just as human beings learn through observing, the young ones of these primates are able to observe what the adult primates do for survival. These cultural practices are beneficial to their survival since they are able to find their food and habitat by engaging in the practices. The primates are able to learn and engage in practices that vary depending on the environment and time.
Primates spend their lives in their different social structures that can also be referred to as communities. The social structure may vary in size and the gender composition. Some primates form large communities while others are divided into sub-groups consisting of both male and female. Newborn offspring join the existing social structures, but once they are old enough, they might form smaller sub-communities (Beltz, &Lisa 142).
Various factors explain the development of social structures in primates. Since mating has to be there for the existence of the primates, they form the structures in search of mating partners. Primates such as chimpanzees move in troops consisting of both male and female. After they meet with other troops the male may switch their groups in search of a mate. Another key reason for the formation of social structures is protection. When primates are living as a group, they are able to protect themselves from incoming threat such as predators. The old ones are able to take care of the young ones. Primates such as baboons are able to protect each other from hyenas and dogs. The social structures are also beneficial when the primates are in search of food. Many non-human primates eat fruits, but the Columbus monkeys rely on leaves from trees. The Columbus form smaller groups compared to other primates.
Human beings also form social structures just like the non-human primates. The structures are formed for various purposes such as mating and protection. The basic social structure in human beings is the family, which is formed by a woman and a man (Hopkins& William 98).
Beltz, Lisa A.. Emerging infectious diseases a guide to diseases, causative agents, and surveillance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011. Print.
Hopkins, William D.. The evolution of hemispheric specialization in primates. London, UK: Academic Press, 2007. Print.