Qn. 1. The interaction is among the determinants of the findings drawn from the test of the prediction, mainly because those that are higher PDI scorers are likely to be affected by their personal differences like distress, conviction and preoccupation. Therefore relating the levels of obesity as a relation to aggression levels will help increase the accuracy of the inferences drawn, mainly because it demonstrates that the influence of natural traits like obesity can influence the outlook of the members of the sample, on the information given after the study, which is the primary determinant of the outcomes from the sample. Therefore, the interaction is not the only determinant of the outcomes of the prediction, but the interaction is likely to influence the outlook of the predictions drawn. Therefore, taking account, noting and controlling the influence of the association will help minimize the possible effect it could have on the outcomes of the test of the prediction, as opposed to failing to consider it, which will yield negative outcomes. For example, from failing to regard the interaction, it is likely to yield results showing higher probability levels from the heterogeneous properties under review in the study. Further, the failure to explore the association will mean that threatening personal differences like aggression will not be checked, implying that the overall outcomes of the test can be flawed due to the effect.
Qn. 2. The study failed – to a larger extent – to control potential confounds like intelligence, mainly because in the span of the discussion of the study, it does not address the confound, among others, directly or indirectly. To show that the study does not explore such potential confounds, it is evident that it explored PDI scores on the levels of confidence in the case of probability estimations. In exploring PRI levels, it incorporates the variant of obesity, showing that obesity influenced the levels of confidence expressed in situations of probability. The study also explores the influence of PDI levels on the capacity of subjects to reason out statistical problems. Further, insensitivity to random variations is explored among high and low scorers in PDI, noting that the behaviors found in the patients may still be evident among non-patients. The study explores the variable of sex, noting that it did not influence the outcomes of the test results, relative to the drawing of inferences. Other variables explored include aggression levels and reasoning patterns, but there is no reference given to the potential confounds of traits like intelligence, which can influence the different studies immensely.
Qn. 3. The benefits of using abstract laboratory tasks include that the participants in the study, especially the researchers will refer to the inferences of the study, during future studies. This entails the transfer of the working experience to other learning instances, where the influence of the variables explored would have affected the validity of the inferences drawn. Through the abstract laboratory task, information retention is improved, and the control measures for the different studies will be controlled more effectively, towards ensuring that the outcomes of future studies are the least erratic they can be. Through the abstract laboratory study, the inclusion and exclusion strategies of the researcher are improved, which will benefit future studies, by improving the validity of the inferences and the results drawn.
The researchers chose the method, mainly because it would demonstrate the importance of controlling the variables under study, towards improving the validity of findings during future studies. For example, through the exploration of the interaction between obesity and aggression levels, more light would be shed on the relationship between the two variables. The advantages of using the task include that the exploration of the different variables will improve the sample selection process. Further, the study would help the researchers in improving the inclusion-exclusion criterion developed in future studies, as well as to control different variables that may influence the validity of the inferences drawn form the sample.
Qn. 4. In the case of designing another experiment in the series, checking the delusional ideation and statistical reasoning, I would experiment on whether reasoning training influenced the pattern of jumping into conclusion and data gathering biases among those suffering from delusions. The study would also examine whether improvements in the reasoning capacities of the subjects would increase flexibility in thinking about the issue of delusion. For example, it is expected that the study may lead to the conclusion that people suffering from delusions and schizophrenia are likely to ask for less information during a reasoning task, when compared to a non-clinical control group of subjects. Through the training process, it is possible that participants will show improvements in data collection, increased flexibility and the depiction of less conviction in their levels of delusion. Through the study, it will be possible to explore the effect of resistance to change can be influenced, towards improving the outlook of the subjects involved.