1. Are there climate change and environmental pollution problems in the world?
Environmental pollution and climate change have become a pressing problem for all the nations in the world. Global environmental pollution problems are critical problems that affect the entire planet Earth. One of the most serious effects of global pollution is global climate change and calls for the cooperation of all countries. Global climate change is the sum of all pollution combined with natural changes in climate. Global problems are also problems where solutions may not be immediate and involve complex political, social, and economic components. Most people might not comprehend how serious this problem is but humanity’s future is at stake unless all people and all nations strive to manage our current climate change crisis. We also need to focus on reducing human population growth and implementing conservation policies worldwide.
Our planet Earth has a closed atmospheric system so the pollution emitted by factories in the air and water, comes back to us in the form of acid rain among other repercussions. What one country does affect rest of the world. For example, China’s manufacturing factories which are high unregulated in terms of pollution control, leave large amount of carbon foot prints and it affects rest of the world by acid rain and global warming. Gulf coast oil spill affects us globally as the residents of planet earth.
2. Can we observe climate change and environmental pollution problems in Turkey?
We can observe climate change and environmental pollution problems in Turkey through different points of data such as levels of CO2 emissions over the years. According to the data collected by the World Bank, the CO2 emissions were 2.8 metric tons per capita in 1991 which increased to 4.0 metric tons per capita in 2008. It definitely indicates that the pollution level has increased in the country and has contributed to increased levels of pollution and climate change. The CO2 levels in Turkey are still much lower than Europe and Central Asia which were 7.7 metric tons per capita in 2008.
Turkey’s Environment Ministry was set up in 1991 which focused on addressing the environmental issues in the country. In 2011 the Ministry of Environment and Forestry was split into the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and the Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs. Environmental problems on the top of the list are water treatment plants, wastewater treatment facilities, solid waste management, and conservation of biodiversity. These are some of the key issues that directly impact the environment and climate change issue for Turkey.
3. What is GSCM? Define. What is the role of businesses in climate change and environmental pollution problems?
GSCM stand for Green Supply Chain Management. Green Supply Chain management addresses the most pressing environmental issues and demonstrates how green practices can actually work in the favor of our environment and how making small changes can go a long way in benefitting our environment.
Businesses play a significant role in climate change and environment pollution problems majorly because they contribute a lot to it. Manufacturing plants of companies play a significant role in polluting our environment and can a play a vital role in reducing their negative impact by going green. Consumer awareness, proven cost saving benefits and pressing global pollution issues are some of the biggest reasons the companies are making efforts to go green. For example, Pepsico makes significant efforts to recycle their packaging and also keep a check on their carbon footprints. Apple Inc, also clearly state in their annual report that they are making significant efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions in their manufacturing of products. Companies are held responsible for pollution by their suppliers so they are also making efforts to keep it as green as possible.
4. What are green supply chain management activities? Describe or explain briefly.
There are many initiatives taken by the companies under Green Supply Chain Management. Most of them are focused at the practices of the suppliers. Some of the activities include sending emails instead of regular mail which saves a lot of paper, free recycling of electronics by major corporations such as Apple, Dell and Sony. The companies basically focus on managing the environmental impacts of operations including compliance, emissions and remediation. According to an article in The Coastal Business Journal, spring 2009: Volume 8, Number 1, “Opportunities in Green Supply Chain Management, the traditional supply chain comprises five parts: raw material, industry, distribution, consumer and waste. Each of the links in the supply chain can be a reason for pollution, waste and other hazards to the environment. A company may use environmentally harmful raw materials such as lead. However, organizations can put pressures on suppliers to use more environmentally-friendly materials and processes”
Some of the examples from major companies include UPS, TD Bank and BMW. UPS now uses rail transport extensively to gain significant carbon reductions. In 2008 alone, ground-to-rail shifts prevented absolute emissions of 1 million metric tons of CO2 in the firm’s U.S. package operations. TD Bank invests heavily in going green, buying wind, solar and other renewable energy sources worth 31,000 tons in carbon offsets. Its prototype “green” branch, the first of 10 scheduled or under construction, strives to reduce energy consumption by 50 percent over traditional bank branches and will generate up to 20 percent of their own electricity through solar panels on the buildings’ roofs. BMW of North America LLC reduced its facilities’ energy and water usage by more than 20 percent from standard buildings, and the company recycles or otherwise diverts from landfills more than 80 percent of all construction waste.
5. Summarize Green Multiplier very briefly? What did Luts Preuss conclude in his book Green Multiplier?
The concept of "green multiplier" refers to the fact that supply chain management affects not only immediate suppliers, but also those that are more distant. Therefore its influences go way beyond that of the implementing organization itself. The purchasing and supply chain management could become an agent for environmental change in manufacturing companies.
Luts Preuss in his book, “Green Multiplier”, emphasizes on corporate social responsibility of companies and how significant are the actions of these companies on our environment. He suggested best practices for suppliers and companies in his book and also how supply chain managers’ decisions affect the success or failure of a Green Supply Chain effort. He gave examples of some major companies in his book who have successfully implemented Green Supply Chain Management and how rest of the companies can follow the example. He also concluded the book with some valuable suggestions for the companies to go green.
6. What is the status of green supply chain management in Turkey?
According to a survey conducted by Wipro, the results showed that as the level of awareness among Turkish companies was highest in; supply chain management potential polluters, environmental management drivers, competitive environment, differentiation based competitive priorities and customer relationship. The companies that were more aware of the practices mentioned above, the level of environmentally conscious practices was higher when compared to the rest.
Most of the firms in Turkey adopt environmentally responsive activities to remain competitive. Environmental drivers have the highest impact on the implementation level of environmentally conscious practices in Turkish companies. Internal environmental management is one of the most important GSCM practices organizations must adopt to improve environmental performance. Governmental regulation is the significant driver for most Turkish companies which is very similar in Chinese Enterprises. The governmental environmental regulations as a driver have the highest influence in comparison with other drivers such as supplier, cost and marketing. There is a focus on the differentiation business strategy which gives rise to be conscious on the environmentally sound practices. The evaluation of customer complaints and the measurement of customer satisfaction are also positively associated with environmental consciousness. A company's performance on these dimensions is an indicator of whether it is aware of the importance of customer satisfaction and of the company's dual roles as buyer and supplier in the value chain. Turkish companies are more concerned about their image in the eyes of their customers which is one of the main drivers for them to create a green image. They are also starting to be aware about the cost saving benefits of going green.
7. Conclusion. Overall what did you learn in this class (green or not)?
This class allowed me to learn significantly about Green Supply Chain and how it affects our environment. I learned how small efforts at every step of supply chain can have a huge impact on our planet as whole. The focus on climate change and environment pollution drew my attention to these pressing topics and I learned a lot of facts and concepts that I was unaware of. Various factors that cause climate change and contribute to environment pollution are greatly correlated to the businesses around us. Big corporations around the world that have manufacturing facilities significantly influence our environment. I also learned that only big corporations have a responsibility towards protecting our planet but also every resident on earth does.
Green Supply Chain Management is a great initiative that more and more companies are adapting and it will surely benefit our planet in the long run. The role of different countries in climate change is quite noticeable too. Some countries have thoughtful regulations on controlling the pollution they emit and others do not have a well framed law and regulation when it comes to controlling pollution. The common goal of going green can be achieved by successful collaboration between suppliers, logistics and companies. I also became aware of numerous green practices that companies can adapt in order to minimize their carbon footprints and also came across some interesting examples during my research for this paper.
Water, Air and Soil Pollution Journal – February 2010 Cnn.com
Vachon, S. (2007). Green supply chain practices and the selection of environmental technologies. International Journal Of Production Research
The green multiplier a study of environmental protection and the supply chain - Lutz Preuss Palgrave 2005