Prostitution remains a societal issue since time immemorial. The paper tackles the social and psychological impact of prostitution in both genders. Despite the nature of the job, the society needs to understand and appreciate prostitutes to enable them live without elements of isolation and contempt which eventually leads to stigmatization. There is a comparison between the understanding of male prostitution that took place in the 19th century, and male prostitution that occurred in the 20th century. Racism and the levels of poverty in the society significantly contribute to prostitution. The women that are involved in prostitution are viewed as having low societal values. Further, prostitution seems to reduce the individuals in the practice to the level of commodity. Prostitutes, like any other human being, deserve an opportunity to live and work without contempt. The children that offer the services can be rescued from the business by taking legal precautions to arrest the individuals that exploit the children’s minds by purchasing their services (Munro & Della, 2008).
The paper tackles and analyses the discourse of male prostitution via the analysis of scientific texts. There is a comparison between the understanding of male prostitution that took place in the 19th century and male prostitution that occurred in the 20th century. The society neglected issues related to male prostitution in the nineteenth century unlike; the issues relating to female prostitution. The society ignored the close relationship that linked gender divergence with social confusion. In the years 1940 and 1950, the society started to alter its notion concerning sexuality. The situation came into play with the emergence of adolescents.
The scientists were attracted with the situation of the society with male prostitution on the rise. The research finding held that male prostitution remained a problem that results from development and realization of adolescents’ sexual identity. The scientists applied scientific techniques; which labeled and separated male prostitute population, the language adopted favored the normative assessment of male prostitution, and the verdict to be made relating to the various classes of male prostitutes. Later in the paper, there are discussions concerning the broad difference that differentiates public prostitutes from private prostitute. The public prostitutes are heterosexual and masculine while, the private prostitutes are homosexual and effeminate. The distinction provided a point of difference on what male prostitution meant and how to work around male prostitution (John, 2003).
The recent texts that handles matters relating to prostitution emphasizes on HIV. The fact seems to neglect the sexual and physical violence that impend the prostitutes. The information that relates to the 1980-84 and 1992 -1996 were examined subject to the study to clearly depict the trend. The acceptance of prostitution activities in the social and medical studies are discussed in details. The victims are also blamed for sexual exploitation from the perpetrators. Racism and the levels of poverty in the society significantly contribute to prostitution. The societal neglect that relates to prostitution; the societal blind eye towards prostitution and the reasons as to why women should shun prostitution are discussed in the paper (Melissa & Vanessa, 2000).
The paper also presents an outlook of the criminal justice undertakings to counteract prostitution. Most of the laws in USA base their arguments on the research on social science including the law relating to sexual harassment law and rape laws. In the recent times the society seems to alter their notion in relation to prostitution, criminal justice system requires familiarization with the new founded research. Psychologists advocate for change in the perception and practice of professionals in relation to the harm that prostituting women experience. The criminal justice system also requires changing in relation to handling matters that affect the prostitutes. Failure to establish the basics that adequately tackles the issues, that the prostitutes contend with by the medical and social science contributes to the negligence experienced by the prostitutes in the recent times.
Prostitution has been viewed as a social problem in relation to the theological perspectives. Christians and Muslims alike try to bring out the level of immorality relating to acts of prostitutions. The women that are involved in prostitution are viewed as having low societal values Prostitution seems to reduce the individuals in the practice to the level of commodity. This is implied by the fact that the prostitutes can be bought and sold to the individuals with sexual desires. The author emphasizes the extent of immorality experienced through prostitution God himself is against acts of prostitutions. The book aims at analyzing certain aspects of prostitution came into acceptance and a regulated act between the 1970s to the 1990 (Brock, 1998).
Indoor prostitution involving massage parlors experienced problems in Toronto resulting from the economic and urban migration, policies practices and the interests of the local states. Later on prostitution acts shifts to the streets and protested by organizations and city officials. The protesting lot felt that prostitution should be associated with criminal justice in the Canadian government. The state responded by incorporating acts of prostitution and pornography (Brock, 1998).
New regulatory practices were adopted to curb prostitution in the society. The prostitutes were liable for punishment in case they ignored the new set of rules. Badgley committee was appointed to deal with issues relating to prostitution amongst the juveniles and the youths. Badley committee legislations to protect the youth and the children were advertised through the use of media. The paper fails in contending to the needs that prompts the young prostitutes into the practice. Isabelle tracol-huynh, transalted by Kareem James Abu Zeid; the journal focuses on lament of prostitutes who feel that they deserve an opportunity to live and work without being contempt. The European colonizers operated the country with their own interests at heart. Anne McClintock asserts that the understanding of the unknown world was equated with the metaphysics that surrounds gender violence. McClintock views the world as a male chauvinistic society. The female gender is used to satisfy the desires of the male; the practice extends to power allocation strategies (Geis, 1997).
The era of colonization involves excessive use of gender demoralization. This resulted from the fact that the male gender was endowed with the racial, economic political and masculinity powers. The economic analysis of prostitution takes into account different practices depending on the pay rates, gender and the characteristics of the available opportunities. The clients and prostitutes undergo neglect of their values and opportunities. The clients and the prostitutes’ reputation damage at the end of their business activities. The situation results to stigma and reputation damage. The demands, equilibrium and supply of prostitution in the market the professionals are significantly affected by the nature of the industry (Geis, 1997).
Children prostitution attracts varied views from various disciplines like anthropology, sociology and psychology. The perspectives adopted to address the practice include juvenile justice, social welfare and law amongst other perspectives. Children remain susceptible and elastic to the acts of prostitution. The children that offer the services can be rescued from the business by taking legal precautions to arrest the individuals that exploit the children’s minds by purchasing their services. According to the available literature, the girl child remains the most affected gender in the business, although even the male children are covered in the social problem (Heather Montgomery in Childhood Studies, 2012).
Most of the works relating to prostitution tends to significantly affect the girl child. The boy child can sometimes also be affected though the cases remain rampant in girl child unless stated otherwise. The children involved in prostitution sometimes reside in the west while other times they reside in the global south. The children from the west participate in acts of prostitution as a result of family issues that result to family disintegrations. Some children results into prostitution since they feel that home is not home anymore hence flee from home. The children from the global south enter the acts of prostitution as a result of child trafficking or even sex tourism. The terminologies used to discuss the children engaged in prostitution in both the west in contrast to the practice adopted by the children in the south. The ages also differ; the west defines the young adults who can be aged up to 21 years as young prostitutes. On the other hand, the children in the south can be termed as engaged in child prostitution, if they age below 18 years.
Most analysis consisting of child prostitution remains prevalent with adolescents. Juvenile prostitution remains the best terminology that suits the case of post teenage adolescents. The younger children are described as boy, girl or child. The terms vary in relation to ages and the situation of the children under study; since the ages of the victims are never mentioned.
How the sources relate to each other
The society usually focuses on the female gender at the expense of the male gender. The paper considers both gender and their different needs in relation to acts of prostitution. Prostitutes both male and female have common psychological and social needs. The paper by John (2003) tackles issues relating to male prostitution. The paper links to the rest of the papers in the study as they all have issues in relation to the society and the adolescents are affected throughout the paper. Despite, the issues that relates to male prostitution the females are the most affected with matters relating to prostitution. Whether young or old, prostitutes are driven by a certain factor to indulge in the acts of prostitution. The papers also links as the prostitutes appears stigmatized with the situation regardless of their intention. The society is focused on eliminating acts of prostitution without providing the prostitutes with the social assistance they need to quit the professional voluntarily. The papers link as they are all driven by the economic perspective of life (Munro & Della, 2008).
Deborah, R. Brock. (1998). Making work, making trouble: Prostitution as a social problem. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Gilbert Geis (1997) . Prostitution as a reckless enterprise. University of California , Irvine30(2) .
Heather Montgomery in Childhood Studies. (2012) Child Prostitution and Pornography
John, S. (2003). A Prostitute’s Progress: Male Prostitution in Science Discourse. Social Semiotics, 13(2) Carflax Publishers
Melissa, F., & Vanessa, K. (2000). Prostitution: A Critical Review of the Medical And Social Sciences Literature. Women & Criminal Justice 11 (4), 29-64.
Published online March 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199791231-0003
Munro, V., & Della, G. M. (2008). Demanding sex: Critical reflections on the regulation of prostitution. Aldershot, England: Ashgat