Heat shock proteins in pacific white shrimp
The aquaculture is admired from Europe to Argentina and now it experiences the continuous growth and intensiﬁcation. One of the commercially important crustacean species, which is a worldwide cultured, is the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vanname. Their cultivation is complex and often ruined by external factor like temperature and diseases. Now a lot of researcher are trying to get full understanding of the ongoing processes to prevent the unwanted murrain. (Zeng et al., 1; Flores et al., 547) As shrimps are too sensitive it is necessary to avoid any shocks and understand mechanisms. Thus, heat shock protein is perfect for discussion.
HEAT SHOCK FOR SHRIMPS
Shrimps are cultivated at the ambient temperature of about 20°C. Wue et al. have chosen following heat shocking conditions treatment with seawater for 2 h at 29°C, 30°C, 31°C 32°C, 33°C, 34°C, 35°C, and 36°C, respectively with further to ambient temperature seawater for 1 h for recovery. These conditions have been chose based on the reports suggesting 30°C to be sub-lethal or in other words the highest temperature to bear. (236)
HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN: BRIF OVERVIEW
Cells have a relatively narrow optimal temperature range for growth. However, deviations are tolerable and integrated adaptive physiological functions protect cell structure and functionalities.
“One of the most powerful adaptation mechanisms is the heat shock response (HSR), a highly conserved program of changes in gene expression that result in the repression of the protein biosynthetic capacity and the induction of a battery of cytoprotective genes encoding the heat shock proteins (HSPs).” (Verghese at al., 116) Though, named heat shock proteins it should be seen as indication of proteins generated as an answer for any type f stress (stress proteins). Due to their main functions, HSPs are also identified as “molecular chaperones” (Whitley et al., 748).
This type of proteins have been originally discovered and described in Drosophila busckii (Ritossa, 18572) and by now were found in the cells of all studied organisms. HSPs are rapidly synthesized in response to negative factors, however, can be present either continuously (constitutive expression), or be induced by stress (stress inducible) through transcription and translation mechanisms.
Their molecular weight range is from 8 to 150 kd, typically reflected in names. For example, one of the most important (Wu et al., 234; Zhao et al, 397-398) and the most investigated 70 kd group of proteins is referred to as Hsp70. (Whitley at al., 748, 750; Zihai at al., 1).
HEST SHOCK PROTEIN: FUNCTION AND ROLL IN SHRIMPS
The heat shock proteins and their deviations are critically important for vitality of cells in different cells situations.
In shrimps as well as in any other species this family of gens appears:
First, they generate protective response to nonlethal stress (Whitley at al., 751) the rest follows.
Latest research with shrimps and pacific white shrimp especially have evidence suggests that the HSR:
Better in preventing damage rather than recovery promotion (Verghese at al., 116);
Challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) (Yan at al., 1077) but the regulating pathways still remain unrevealed (Zhao et al., 400);
Favoured fight with Taura Sundrom Virus (TSV) infection. (Zeng et al., 917, 924);
Lvhsp70 and Lvhsp90 helped to tolerate stress related to nutrition (Flores et al., 554-555).
REGULSTING THE HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS WITH PROBIOTICS
As immune systems of shrimps is affected by microorganism (Chan ay al., 4, Zeng at al, 2; Zhao at al., 400) it is in turn affected by probiotics. This effect is transmitted on HSPs as probiotics changes the answer (Chan ay al., 4) generated by shrimps body. Still the data are not fully stated and clear.
Thus the speaking of heat shock proteins in pacific white shrimp we can conclude that HPSs are as important for this organism as for any other living cell and helps not only to fight the possible damages caused by high temperatures, but also fight diseases. The functional pathways are still unclear, but it seems possible to modulate the response.
Carmen Flores-Miranda Ma. Del, Antonio Luna-Gonzalez, Diana V. Corte s-Espinohspsaresa, Pındaro Alvarez-Ruiz, Edilmar Cortes-Jacinto ,Francisco J. Valdez-Gonzalez, Ruth Escamilla-Montes, and Hector A. Gonzalez-Ocampo. “Effects of diets with fermented duckweed (Lemna sp.) on growth performance and gene expression in the Paciﬁc white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.” Aquacult Int 23 2015:547–561. Print.
Jacob Verghese, Jennifer A., Yanyu Wang, and Kevin A. Morano “Biology of the Heat Shock Response and Protein Chaperones: Budding Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a Model System.” Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 76.2 2012: 115-158. Print.
Li Zihai and Pramod Srivastava “P. 2004. Heat-Shock Proteins. Current Protocols in Immunology.” 58:1T:A.1T.1–A.1T.6., 2003. Print
Prasad Jaya, Paul McJarrow, and Pramod Gopal “Heat and Osmotic Stress Responses of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) in Relation to Viability after Drying.” Applied and environmental microbiology, February 2003: 917–925. Print.
Ritossa F.A. “New pufﬁng pattern induced by tem-perature shock and DNP in Drosophila.” Experientia 18, 1962: 18571–18573. Print
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Yang L., J. Liu, M. Liu, M. Qian, and M. Zhang. “Identification of fatty acid synthase from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and its specific expression profiles during white spot syndrome virus infection.” Fish Shellfish Immunol 30 2011: 744–749. Print.
Zeng D, Chen X, Xie D, Zhao Y, Yang C, et al. (2013) “Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection.” PLoS ONE 8(2) 2013: e57515. Web.
Zhao Cui, Xiaojun Zhang, Fuhua Li, Pin Huan and Jianhai Xiang. “Functional analysis of the promoter of the heat shock cognate 70 gene of the Paciﬁc white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.” Fish Shellfish Immunol 34 2013: 397-401. Print.