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According to Ian Barbour, there are different ways of relating science and religion. His understanding of the relationship between science and religion is based mainly on four ways. These include; conflict, independence, dialogue and integration. Barbour believes that both science and religion should be viewed independently since there will definitely be conflicts if they are all understood under the same perspective.
Ian developed an independence model of understanding religion and science. In this model, it is assumed that each is (religion and science) a sphere of realism or autonomous field of study with its own language and sole rules independently. In other words, science and religion are divided and commonly restricted realms of human idea whose presentation in the same perspective results into confusion of both scientific hypothesis and religious values.
This implies that religion says little about scientific studies while science has very little to say about religious values. This kind of approach (independence) mostly applies to theologians and scientists as it provides the Basing on this approach, Ian believes that life is not experienced as precisely divided into separate sections but in interconnectedness and fullness before we develop specific students to learn different features of it. He also favors the dialogue mode of relating religion and science particularly in the multi-level approach to truth.
Barbour also believe that we should abandon believes that we must abandon both Biblical Literalism and Scientific Materialism to apply the integration approach. In this model, major dialogues in which religion and science mainly theology interact in ways that require metaphysical assumption concerning meaning. Natural theology is the most recognizable and is described as the search for proof of God, His actions, traits and existence in nature.
In conclusion, it is possible that an individual’s essential assumptions and his up-bringing may determine the combination of approaches that he accepts for relating religion and science.
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