face-to-face, by phone or email, etc. There are two main roles of personal selling in the promotional mix. First of all, it is used to link the company with its customers. Because salespeople represent the company, to most of customers the salesperson is the company, therefore, customers may become loyal to the salespeople and company. Meanwhile, salespeople represent the customers to the company, which means company could understand customer needs through salespeople and provide more valuable products and services to gain more advantage relationship between customer and company.
The other role of personal selling is coordinating marketing and sales. If marketing and sales department could not work along well, it will affect customer relationship and company performance. Therefore, company should provide opportunities to make marketing team and sales team getting closer by creating joint objectives or more communications between two functions. The promotion that three companies applied is totally different in both domestic and international markets. For example, Blizzard Entertainment operates the BlizzCon to promote company itself. BlizzCon is a convention to promote and celebrate its own games, Warcraft, Starcraft and Diablo. Moreover, Blizzard also hired some celebrity endorsement on TV-Ads and online-ads through famous game review websites.
When Blizzard released its advertisements of World of Warcraft with many celebrities, the sales of Blizzard have increased. As for Rockstar North in the UK gaming market, its action-adventure game, Red Dead Redemption used plenty of promotion methods. For example, in-store promotion, which is a successful way to advertise and hard-core gamers would like to buy games in the physical stores. GTA V, released in 2013, broke six new world records. It sold 11,21 million units within the first 24 hours and the overall revenue was estimated to be $815,7 million after just three days after the game was released. Evidently, proper applying the marketing mix and producing good-quality innovative and creative product helped Rockstar North reach such high levels. Their Product was designed with excellence, the Place was chosen wisely, as “video games were reported to have become the UK’s most popular form of entertainment” and “during the period 1996-2009, in the U.S. the number of video games sold for use on a console or PC increased from 73,3 million unites to 273,5 million” (Young, 2013, p.1).
Promotion was done mainly based on the company’s already earned positive reputation and controversies concerning violent content, which fueled public’s interest. The set price was affordable, and as the majority (67%) of households had a gaming console or a personal computer (Young, 2013, p.1), the game’s accessibility could not be put in doubt. The other way is outdoor advertising because it is a main way to get in contact with a large audience and could attract people to take pictures to share it online. The digital marketing is growing very rapid and popular in the modern gaming marketing. Because social networking such as Facebook, Twitter and Youtube is important for people’s social life and based on that the target customers could be reached. In Chinese gaming market, Tencent has the majority equity of Riot Games, which has the most players of video games in the world, League of Legend. (LOL) Its main promotion way is on web promotion, because it is a social game that people would like to invite their friends. In Chinese market, Tencent rely on its messenger software QQ to promote League of Legend.
Because QQ has almost one billion registered users and 100 million online users, thus, Tencent has advantage of huge users to advertise its own games. Another positive aspect of applying promotion to the company’s progress is China’s restriction on certain types of content, so domestic operating environment and the absence of foreign competitors’ offerings play its role in raising Tencent’s popularity (Chaze, 2010, p.103). Tencent does not have to take into consideration the differences in cultural and ethnic aspects of its existent and potential consumers, and can, therefore, apply the same template for its market mapping without modifying it according to the diversified public's needs. There are over 420 million Internet users in China (Chen, Batson & Dang, 2010) – more than the total population of the United States.
Therefore, the company is well provided with potential users. Another good factor of orienting the business domestically was because Tencent was barely affected by the world crises of 2008. As Tencent’s services and portals are mainly free of charge, it means that they are commonly affordable (the Price aspect is addressed). Also, due to high popularity of its content, Tencent can advertise its new products within the existent ones (applying Promotion aspect). On the other hand, as Miller (1998, p.9) mentions, "firms that do participate on an international basis also have a greater opportunity to evaluate foreign competitors in other, less-critical trading areas". Therefore, it is always a justified choice to introduce new products or services domestically before transferring them to the global sectors. As most of Tencent's innovations is based on filling the consumers' gap and catering to their needs due to the country's ban on the similar products (Facebook, a worldwide popular social network is banned in China), the company's mainly operating within its country is not dictated by the attempts to try out new products domestically before transferring them into more influential sectors. However, since Tencent has started operating globally, its advertizing - promotion - campaigns should be considered from the point of international consumers' needs rather than mere "nicheing" the gap in the game industry.
Blizzard Entertainment showed an example of expanding its promotion internationally before testing their product in the domestic market first. World of Warcraft, released in 2004, secured as many as 1,5 million purchases in North America, and expanded to Europe and China, where, despite the Chinese preference towards their domestic game industry products, it soon outnumbered North America in the number of players. Therefore, the game was the best in its category. Such high popularity was achieved by the combination of many factors: the game was well-designed and had fantastic graphics and music, great storylines, common availability and affordability. Thus, Blizzard Entertainment filled their niche in the game industry and applied the marketing mix to their products. For example, distribution of game in Asian countries was deemed to be potentially unsuccessful to the competitors. Firstly, established domestic competitors are naturally able to set less price on their products as they do not have to spend that much on customs duties and transportation. Although, local companies "often have lon-standing political connections that can further complicate market entry by outside firms (Miller, 1998, p.12). However, Blizzard Entertainment went ahead and created a good game which was internationally focused and provoked interest in diversified audience.
2.4 What product criteria are important to consumers when undertaking pre-purchase evaluation? (Product features and benefits; pre-purchase evaluation)
According to Kotler et al. (2013), product can be defined as items that can be provided to market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption to satisfy consumers' needs. Product could include tangible goods or intangible services. Additionally, to give definition of "services are a type of product that contains activities, benefits or satisfactions offered for sale that are essentially intangible and do not result in the ownership of anything" (Kotler et al, 2013, p 238). Product is the key factor that would affect the market offering in the whole marketing mix plan, because it will begin with offering product that giving value to target consumers.
Pre-purchase evaluation of the product is described by the Knowledge-Hope Model (KHM) (Peluso, 2011, p.xvi). This model comes from three main criticisms of the Disconfirmation Paradigm: expectations, desires and the perception of the consumption experience. Expectations can be changed and modified with the level of familiarity and consumer's expertise throughout the process of product evaluation and is mainly based on the knowledge the consumer holds for a certain product. Desires are not mere consumers' wants, but the normative standards "which pertain to the ideal performance considered fair or socially acceptable" (p.xvii). Another determinant is hope, which is considered to not have been recognized by many scholars yet. Still, hope, in terms of pre-purchase evaluation, can be described as a goal which an individual has in mind will materialize with the purchase of a certain product. Therefore, even though pre-purchase evaluation takes place when one is choosing between the products and deciding to which one to give his preference, product evaluation lasts through the process of making a purchase and follow into use of a product, which shows whether or not the chosen product has contributed to the purchaser's satisfaction. It is a commonly accepted view nowadays, that the consumers do not seek a product to buy, they seek the satisfaction to gain with the purchase of a certain product (Mathur, 2012, p.8). Therefore, in order to secure successful product pre-purchase evaluation, the companies need to make sure that the product features and benefits cater to the consumers' satisfaction from product purchase and use and, thus, contribute to the consumers' choice in favor of their product.
As the product does not only serve to the needs of the customer, but customer is also "one of several instruments used to measure the properties of the product" (Beckley, Paredes and Lopetcharat, 2012, p.5), it means that product features and benefits do not solely influence consumers' choices, but consumers' choices also influence products' features and benefits. Therefore, marketing mix in terms of the Product aspect is interchangeable with other three aspects, since all of them are oriented towards ensuring an existent customer's loyalty and a potential buyer's choice. While marketing mix might have Product in its main four concepts, it is most likely not to be for the reason of the organizations being solely product-oriented, but because product is what the consumer expects to get from the developer. People is most likely to take the first place among the concepts of marketing mix, since the business of goods and services is now human-oriented. Also, marketing introduces a concept named “attitude branding”, which “represents a larger feeling, which is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product” (Geetanjali, 2010, p.238). For example, playing Warcraft rather than some less famous real-time strategy creates the feeling of belonging to the echelon of the people valuing the same product and being united with them. There are fan clubs of all popular computer games, where the players share their hints, game stories, discuss the tactics, share cheating codes, sharing collections of items related to the game, etc. Attitude branding also contributes to the consumers' satisfaction, and is, therefore, an important asset during pre-purchase evaluation. Sherlekar & Gordon (2010, p.5) mention the words by Paul Mazur, who defines marketing as “the creation and delivery of a standard of living to society”. In the context of game industry, with the progressive development of technology and the world having entered a digital informational era, the companies within the game industries and providing Internet services (in case of Tencent Holding) indeed carry a mission of introducing the society to newly developed technologies and services. By providing common users with software, chatting platforms, applications and PC games, the game industry helps the people get the benefits from the modern era of digital information and contribute to its development by raising the standards for the software and game developing organizations. The same source says that modern marketing begins with the customer. Rowley (2006, p.2) says that “marketing has moved from its emphasis on products to focus on the delivery of customer value, and benefits that the customer appreciates”. Thus, based on this tendency, four main concepts of the marketing mix have been developed, as their combination is virtually oriented towards human aspects and reflect the reality of marketing being a social process.
While knowledge is one of the determinants of the KHM model, as has been previously described, knowledge in certain areas needs to be also present in the company's strategic planning in order to understand the market and the needs of the consumers and, thus, properly address the desirable product features and benefits which can positively influence pre-purchase evaluation. The knowledge in this case is needed in the areas of company's own products, their strong and weak points; competitors' products and their strong and weak points; niche marketing and its business potential; relevant customer groups: the buyers, users and the purchase decision makers; market dynamics and changing trends in product demand (Mathur, 2012, p.11). The same as a consumer defines the product's strong and weak sides before purchasing it, the similar practice needs to be carried out by the company's executives in order to ensure high competency and be determined to make its weaknesses as strong as strong points. One of the certain strong point of a popular company is its lead brand. At times, companies tend to use their lead brand's positive and well-earned reputation in order "to sell other products, either bundled with it or way of promotion of lesser-known product in coordination with the main brand (Mathur, 2012, p.15). Also, companies tend to provide quality service for their products in order to demonstrate their support for loyal customers on all steps of product purchase and further utilization.
Mathur (2012, p.16) also mentions that there are three quality categories for the products which are not health-related: top quality products, mainly sold through super market and boutiques, second quality, for the middle-income consumers sold predominantly in utility stores and bargain counters, and third quality, for working class buyers sold mainly through bargain stores and small shops. Therefore, the quality standards of a certain product need to meet the standard qualities of the products prescribed to a certain quality category in order to ensure consumers' satisfaction in terms of the purchase standing up to the set-up usual standards. Companies need to make sure that the products they develop, manufacture, promote and entitle to a certain quality category correspond to this category in terms of product features, price and targeted audience. Consequently, price also influences pre-purchase evaluation of a certain product by its potential buyer. According to Kotler at el (2013), pricing strategies have three major strategies: customer value-based pricing, cost-based pricing and competition-based pricing. These three major strategies placed three layers in setting price. The price ceiling is set by the customer perceptions about the products. According to Kotler's (2013) comment, good pricing always starts with customers and their perception about value of products. If customers think the price of product is more than its value, they are not willing to buy it. The floor layer is built by product costs, which the company's profit will be affected if company pricing its product below its costs. Between these two layers, the company must consider various factors including internal and external, such as its competitors' strategies and pricing strategies, the marketing strategy, objectives and mix, and the nature of the market and demand.
The pricing strategy applied by three different companies is based on different region. The Blizzard usually sell its new games for $20, but the monthly membership of World of Warcraft is its best income generator, which one month plan will cost $14.99 for one month, three-month plan will cost $13.99 per month and six-month plan will cost $12.99 per month. The Blizzard uses market-oriented pricing strategy, which the company will set price based on the market research and competitors’ price. However, Blizzard will not increase monthly subscription fee by adding more features on current games. This is in order to benefit current players and attract more new potential players. For the British gaming company, Rockstar North, was DMA design as its former name. Because its games are the leaders of other competitors’ games that are similar games share the market, therefore, the company could use price leadership strategy for setting price of games. Finally, Tencent offered quite low prices for its products and services. Due to the reason that setting price of games in China is mainly based on customers’ perception and satisfaction, there are two pricing strategy by Tencent: game is either charged fee based on hours or it is free to play games, however, if players are willing to experience more added-value services, they have to pay for it (VIP servies and applications, such as QQ Music). Both of these two pricing strategy are working well in Chinese gaming market, but the main trend in the future will be the mode of free-to-play.
2.5 How do Place factors influence the customers’ purchase decision? (Place; purchase)
Place factors are mainly applicable when discussing the nature of place umbrella brands, as places assert their individuality in order to accomplish certain economic, political and socio-psychological objectives and benefit from them. As Iversen and Hem mention (2008, p.603), there are four acts of communication that a place performs. They are: the products that it exports; the way it promotes itself for trade, inward investment and inward recruitment; the way it behaves in acts of domestic and foreign policy and the way in which these acts are communicated. A place brand develops a certain image and communicating it based on the positive values and perceptions of the place, which, in their turn, influence pre-purchase evaluation of the product.
As organizations operate in changing and developing business environments, they need to respond and adapt to changing environmental conditions if they intend to grow and develop within the same place and within the same industry. It is also worth taking into consideration whether an organization operates in mass market or fragmented market, as entirely different marketing strategies need to be applied. As Proctor (2000, p.123) mentions, "social and cultural factors, political, fiscal and economic policies, and changes in technology all have an impact on customers' wants and needs for products and services and the kind of products and services that are produced". Therefore, a proper and thorough analysis of the present condition of the targeted market and the audience is vital in order to ensure that the business strategies reflect the current situation on the market of a certain region and fully correspond to it. As the same source states, "demographic and cultural factors make up society-wide influences and changes that can affect the marketing environment" (p.124). Indeed, when performing either niche or target marketing, population size, growth rate, gender distribution, birth rates, death rates, life expectancy, geographical/regional shifts, household/family tendencies, income/wealth distribution and socio-economic groups need to be taken into consideration for the sake of successful application of the marketing mix aspects, one of them being Place. For niche marketing, the organization must know its target group or segment of the market and study it thoroughly. As the KHM model suggests, each segment group has its own knowledge, desires and hopes, it is essential for the businesses to analyze them carefully and make sure to address their acute and emerging problems. Also, in terms of differentiated marketing, when an organization enters many marketing segments having a unique marketing mix appropriate for each segment, it has to consider various aspects of place, as many marketing segments imply having been segmented due to differences in their consumers' needs and expectations. Undifferentiated marketing, it its turn, allows an organizations have similar marketing mix for many market subdivisions (Sherlekar&Sherlekar, 2010, p.135). In this case, the organization will face stronger and more specialized competition and needs, therefore, to map its strategies in advance, not relying on the changeable business environment. The same source mentions that "demographic and socio-economic factors are used very widely for market segmentation. They are very convenient, easy to measure and data is more easily available" (p.139). Although, these factors might be useful in distinguishing between buying power of the audience and determining basic customers' expectations, they are relatively weak for effective differentiation of demand. Also, psychographic/psychological characteristics need to be taken into consideration when defining multivariable models for market segmentation, and, as they are influenced by socio-economic and political conditions, it means that place aspect is highly desirable to be carefully studied and analyzed.
Apart from Place being one of the aspects of the marketing mix, place (geographical location of the consumers) can also influence the application of the marketing mix by the same company. As Rao (2006, p.179) suggests: “a problem facing international marketers is whether or not to use the same marketing mix for the same product in Eastern and Western markets where social and economic systems differ”. Of course, since Internet and PC games are developed for global purchase, it touches the aspect of multiple diversified nations becoming the consumers of the same product, and, therefore, applying marketing mix to the product line which is supposed to be spread internationally should be treated with great caution. For example, the source states that Western consumers are more responsive to discounts, while Eastern are more preoccupied with brands (p.180). While discounts depend on the present socioeconomic conditions or seasonal sales, brand carries more, as it is “a bundle of values, which is has to deliver” (Chunawalla, 2009, p.14). As mentioned by Cherunilam (2010, p.34) with referencing to Cateora and Keaveney: “the key to successful international business is adaptation to the differences in the environment that usually exist from one market to another”. Same as Tencent adjusted ICQ service to the Chinese language. Geographic location (ethnography) is also included into studies of consumer behavior (Nair, 2009, p.11).Also, Chinese political situation is more complex and uncertain than that of Western countries (Breznitz & Murphree, 2011, p.39) Domestic Chinese organizations engaged in the game industry have to analyze the current situation and calculate the possible future outcomes in order to set their priorities correctly and properly set up their business long-term objectives when making business plan and applying marketing mix to their business. As it has been previously mentioned, Chinese is more focused on the domestic market. However, having figured out that almost the same marketing mix can be applied to close Asian countries’ markets, Tencent, along with Naspers from South Africa, became a part owner of Indian ibibo (an ecommerce and online transactions company) (Gupta, Pande & Wang, 2014, p.79).Therefore, it also influences applying marketing mix in these three different companies.
The Place aspect of the marketing mix is addressed by Tencent with “taking the best ideas from foreign technology service providers and Internet content companies and adapting their systems to the Chinese market (Breznitz & Murphree, 2011, p.161). For example, the same source states that in 1999, Tencent “wrote a Chinese-language imitation of then globally popular instant messaging software ICQ” (p.175). Now, QQ (the name of the Shenzhen version of this software) is the most valuable brand of Tencent. In 2004, the Internet portal QQ.com was launched, and soon became the most visited website in the country (p.176) Although at first such high popularity created problems for the company by requiring much money needed for supporting computer servers, it soon attracted many investments. Also, narrow local specialization of the company aimed mainly at developing and releasing services in China deprived the company of the possibility to attract many talented and skillful researched from abroad, it resolved the problem by dividing the company’s responsibilities between Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen. So, it is evident that from the start, the company mainly focused on adapting foreign services to the Chinese realities, but later it started developing its own software and became much more successful.
One of the peculiarities of the game industry is that its market is very concentrated, as there are only a few large gaming developing organizations, while minor or sole developers often simply cannot overcome what is needed to obtain a publishing contract (Laramee, 2002, p.173). Therefore, apart from place and business environment being taken into consideration by the existent company which seeks to successfully address the expectations and needs of its customers, they should also be taken into consideration by those companies yet to enter the market in order to fill the correspondent niche and obtain a firm position on the market.
Therefore, it is in the best interests of a company to take into consideration all influencing factors when developing segmentation strategies and measure the intensity of need and the strength of purchasing power and abilities of the targeted audience. Place, being one of the aspects of marketing mix aspects, influences the consumers' decisions mainly because the place influences customer behavior pattern.
2.6 Summary of Literature Review
Since there is a little information in academic sources about the direct implementation of different narrowed-down aspects of marketing mix which influence consumer purchase decision within the PC game industry, the literature review presents more of a theoretic background. The aspects reviewed in this section give a strong database of knowledge on market segmentation, search, promotion, pre-purchase evaluation, product features and benefits, etc. Preliminary research about the performance of the three chosen market leaders of PC game developers and researcher’s personal interpretation of data assist in applying the specific aspects of marketing mix to the companies’ activities on the market and evaluating their influence on consumer purchase decision. In order to access more specific data and interpret the gathered statistics in accordance to theoretical base and personal observations, I will conduct an online international survey with the previously approved questionnaire. While the Literature Review answers theoretical questions, such as “How are potential markets segmented and needs of customers understood?” and “How do Place factors influence the customers’ purchase decision?”, it does not give the full answer to the remaining research questions, which are “How do computer games companies proactively communicate with the potential consumer to influence their decision?” and “What product criteria are important to consumers when undertaking pre-purchase evaluation?”. These aspects were taken into consideration when forming a questionnaire for further survey and aim at forming the focus on the primary methods of the research. The questionnaire will fill the gap between theoretical approach and actual consumer behavior and tendencies within the PC game industry.
Part 3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Rationale
Four research approaches include quantitative research, which involves collecting and converting data into numerical form with further outlining of statistics; qualitative research, which aims at gaining complex understanding of the people’s experience and behavior; pragmatic approach or mixed methods, which recognizes the limitations of each abovementioned method and implies using different techniques; and advocacy/participatory approach, which implies using emancipatory approach in order not only to study the current situation, but research the group under research at all stages and outline the positive changes this group might undergo in the future.
In this dissertation, I will analyse how the leading companies in the game industry market influence the consumer purchase decision on the examples of three chosen companies: Blizzard Entertainment (US), Rockstar North (UK) and Tencent (China). My aim is to analyze the different approaches to the marketing of computer games: a comparative study of market in the U.S.A., UK and China, thus, this research will help me to accomplish my research aim. I will thoroughly research the concept of marketing mix, the development of the game industry and the development of the three chosen companies. Therefore, equipped with credible academic sources and using my own interpretation and analysis, I will conclude how successfully the marketing mix is applied within the marketing and business of these three companies and how successfully the three leading companies influence their consumer purchase decision. I will use pragmatic approach for the survey analysis, as it will involve collecting data and turning it into numerals (quantitative approach) and its further interpretation in terms of looking at the pattern of meaning on the basis of the collected data (qualitative approach)..
3.2.1 Specific procedures to be followed
I will research the academic sources in order to gain some general information about marketing, marketing mix and define its four main aspects, game industry and marketing of PC games specifically. I will then consult some academic sources in order to gather information on the development and the current position on the market of the three chosen companies. In order to get an insight on the consumers’ opinions and tendencies on the matter of pre-purchase evaluation, I will conduct an international online survey in order to get more specific insight on the consumers’ opinions.
3.2.2Recruitment of subjects
I will use the survey method to assess the consumers’ preference on product features and benefits, the tendencies of market segmentation, their opinions on price and place and pre-purchase evaluation of the product. Two survey method that will be usedis an Internet survey. In the choice between mass survey or private interviews, both methods’ weaknesses and strong points had to be considered. The advantages of face-to-face interviews are that the speed and numbers of response are usually more than other surveys. However, face-to-face interviews have weaknesses, becausethe human factor involved might imply bias and prejudice towards certain product group or company. As for online surveys, it has usually more responses than other survey methods and is less expensive. Nevertheless, the potential problem of online survey is danger of unrepresentative sample and low response rates. I can use social networking tools to chat with particular participants to get results of surveys. Another advantage of Internet survey is the speed of response by participants. However, the response rates might be low and information could be biased. When using social networks, there is always a risk of potential participants being unwilling to take part in the survey as social network messages from unknown users might be considered as spam or scam, while face-to-face interviews give a good chance of explanation of the research aims and goals. However, in order to avoid biasand prejudice together with personal aspects of face-to-face interviews, I will collect the data via online survey and interpret it based on preliminary theoretical research.
In order to maintain the confidentiality of participants in my research, I will not disclose their personal information, places of study or work places. I will inform all the respondents about the purpose and aims of my survey and respect their decision, should they refuse to provide me with their opinion on a certain questions or participate in the survey in general.
3.2.4 Potential risks
As long as human factor is involved, there is always a risk of the gathered data not being perfectly accurate. Also, since my survey will outline the opinion of the internationalconsumers from different regions, this data cannot be applied to specific evaluation of the application of marketing mix by all three companies. Nevertheless, I will analyze my survey in accordance to an average consumer of game industry products, and try to figure out the common tendency in accordance with the results received from the survey.
3.2.5 Investigator’s evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio
Benefits will outweigh the risks, because, if taking into consideration the risk of human factor influencing the survey figures and results, there is no survey or interview which would not have been affected by it. Nevertheless, from the global point of view, the most important thing is to correctly and properly interpret the gathered data considering the current condition of the market, the psychology of an average modern consumer and the shifts in the current socioeconomic and political tendencies.
Part 4: DATA EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS
As the Introduction and Methodology chapters mainly contained the theoretical knowledge and data gathered from the sources listed in the Literature Review and the knowledge base acquired from MSc Business&Management course, this section, which includes the overview of data collection and data analyses deals with more real-life evidence, obtained from conducted surveys and observations. Pragmatic approach in Survey analysis section will help to full the knowledge gap and provide answer to research questions, which can be only accessed via collecting and interpreting real data. While “segmentation would reveal specific solutions for different customer groups” (Meyer, 2007, p.18), the games developing countries focus on supplying their target groups with the products of sufficient quality, taking into consideration the fact their product presents the main means of spending free time for over half of gaming population.
4.1 Survey Analysis
I conducted an online survey aimed at international audience via social network. I aimed at getting 200 responses, as I needed an even number for the numerical convenience. A hundred respondents would present weaker sample for analysis, while a great number of online respondents would put at risk the accuracy and credibility of data, considering the limitations and weaknesses of online surveying. In order to maintain confidentiality, I did not record the names of social network users I sent my online survey to and did not require them to input any personal information into the replies, limiting the replies strictly on the topic. I sent the online survey to the members of PC games groups, in order to ensure that those potential respondents would give credible information and would not experience any issues in responding the questions unrelated to them. Such sample helped me analyse an average consumer behavior and developers’